How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Muscles and Internal Organs

STUDY
PLAY
Origin
The end of muscle that's attached to bone that doesn't move during contraction
Insertion
The end of the muscle that's attached to the bone that moves during contraction
Extensors
Increase the angle of a joint
Flexors
Decrease the angle of a joint
Abductors
Move an appendage away from the midline of the body
Adductors
Move an appendage toward the midline of the body
Retractors
Move an appendage backward
Protractors
Move an appendage forward
Supinators
Rotate the palm or bottom of foot upward
Pronators
Rotate the palm or bottom of foot downward
Clavotrapezius
The muscle in the neck nearest to the head. Wraps around the front of the neck, associated, Large muscle, extending from neck to shoulder. Lies just anterior to acromiotrapezius
Acromiotrapezius
Inserts at the scapula; originates at the cervical vertebrae. Thin, flat muscle extending from the middle of the back to the shoulder. Middle of trapezius muscles. Moves the scapula dorsally
Spinotrapezius
Inserts on the spine of the scapula; originates at the thoracic vertebrae. Located posterior to acromiotrapezius, and partially covered by it. Moves the scapula upward and backward
Spinodeltoideus
Muscle wrapped around shoulder near the top, helps rotation of scapula
Biceps brachii
Inserts on the radius; originates on the scapula. Flexes the lower arm
Triceps brachii
Inserts on the elbow (olecranon); originates from the scapula and the humerus. Extends the lower arm
Latissimus dorsi
Large sheet of muscle in the back. Inserts on the medial part of the humerus; originates along the middorsal line (thoracic and lumbar vertebrae). Moves arms downward
Tensor fasciae latae
abducts thigh; medially rotates thigh
Gluteus maximus
Inserts on the femur; originates from the coxal bone. Supports the pelvis and trunk on the femur
Biceps femoris
Inserts at the distal portion of the femur and proximal portion of the tibia. Part of hamstrings group, flexes knee and extends thigh, rotates thigh laterally
External oblique
Inserts at the linea alba and pelvis; originates at the lumbodorsal fascia and posterior ribs. Compresses abdomen
Gastrocnemius
The calf muscle. Inserts at the heel (calcaneus) by means of the Achilles tendon; originates at the distal end of the femur. Extends the foot
Semitendinosus
Extends and adducts thigh, flexes knee joint
Pectoralis major
Chest muscle that causes shoulder flexion, adduction and horizontal adduction
Pectoralis minor
Beneath major pectoralis, triangular upper chest edge
Rectus abdominis
Depresses ribs, flexes vertebral column, compresses abdomen
Linea alba
The sheet of fibrous connective tissue that connects the abdominal muscles from each side on the ventral midline
Gracilis
Adducts femur/thigh
Cutaneous trunci
Inserts at the skin; originates under the upper front leg. Moves the skin
Submaxillary glands
Large, roughly oval and elongate part of salivary glands
Sublingual glands
Touch the submaxillary glands on their anterolateral surface
Parotid glands
Extends toward and behind the ear; beneath the ear and between the jaw and points of the shoulders
Thyroid gland
Gray or brown swelling on either side of the trachea
Larynx
Rigid, cartilaginous chamber containing the vocal cords
Atria
Two dark-colored chambers at the top of the heart that receive blood from veins
Ventricles
Light brown muscular area below the atria, which pump blood
Pericardium
Thin membrane around the heart
Thymus gland
Gland that lies directly over the upper part of the heart and functions in the developing immune system and is larger in young rats than old rats
Bronchial tubes
Tubes branching from the trachea where air enters the lungs.
Alveoli
Thin-walled air sacs where gas exchange occurs
Coelom
The body cavity where the internal organs are suspended
Viscera
Internal organs
Peritoneum
Membranous tissue that covers the viscera and the abdominal tissue
Parietal peritoneum
Covers the walls of the abdominal cavity
Visceral peritoneum
Covers the internal organs
Mesenteries
Thin membranes continuous between the parietal and viscera peritoneums that attach the internal organs to the dorsal body wall
Omentia
Thin membranes extending from the visceral peritoneums and connect organ to organ
Liver
Dark-colored organ suspended just under the diaphragm. Produces bile to digest fat, stores glycogen, transforms nitrogenous wastes into less harmful things, transforms digested nutrients into various molecules
Median or cystic lobe
The part of the liver at the top with a cleft in the center
Left lateral lobe
The large part of the liver partially covered by the stomach
Right lateral lobe
The part of the liver that is partially divided into an anterior and posterior lobule. Is smaller than the left lateral lobe, and is hidden from view by the median lobe
Caudate lobe
The part of the liver that is small and folds around the esophagus and stomach and appears to be in two small sections