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ACT Science Facts To Know
taken from http://blog.prepscholar.com/the-only-actual-science-you-have-to-know-for-act-science
Terms in this set (18)
Lysosomes hold enzymes. Lysosomes digest food or break down the cell when it dies.
Mitochondria are organelles that act like a digestive system, which takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy rich molecules (ATP) for the cell.
The cell nucleus acts like the brain of the cell. It contains the cell's DNA, or the genetic information from which proteins are made. It also helps control eating, movement, and reproduction.
Chloroplasts only exist in plant cells and assist in the process of photosynthesis, converting light into energy (which only plants do, not animals).
The cell membrane holds all of the pieces of the cell and serves as the barrier between the cell and other cells.
DNA contains the genetic information needed for making proteins (protein synthesis). Protein synthesis involves DNA, RNA, ribosomes and proteins. DNA acts as the blueprint for protein production.
Messenger RNA (known as mRNA) makes a copy of the sequence of DNA of a specific gene. This process is known as transcription and happens in the nucleus.
Ribosomes use mRNA as a guide to make protein of the same amino acid sequence as the original DNA.
The process of producing protein from the mRNA is referred to as translation
In a specific environment, traits that allow organisms to reproduce more effectively will become more common, and traits that reduce reproductive success will become less common.
Sugar Molecule Structure
C6H12O6 is the basic sugar molecule structure
Fats Molecule Structure
Fats have nearly twice the number of H as C and a very small number of O.
Protein Molecule Structure
Proteins are composed of amino acids (proteins are made based on the original DNA sequence). There are many different protein structure, but all proteins contain C, H, O and N (Nitrogen)
Nucleic acids are biomolecules. Two types of nucleic acids that we already discussed are DNA and RNA. Nucleic acids are made up of 3 parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Nucleic acids are different from Sugar, Fat, and Proteins because they are made up of P (Phosphorus) and N in addition to C, H, and O
Freezing/Boiling point of Water (Celsius)
Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius and boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
a pH of below 7 is acidic, above 7 is basic, and at 7 is considered neutral
Molar Mass concepts
the mass of a molecule is the sum of the mass of its atoms.
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