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Explain the enzymatic reaction involving pyruvate dehydrogenase in the intermediate stage - where it occurs, if the process is aerobic or anaerobic, the net chemical reaction, and the net energy transer.
Inside the mitochondria, aerobic process, net chemical reaction = 2 acetyl CoA and 2 NADH, net energy transfer 2NADH
Citric acid cycle (definition)
A cyclic metabolic pathway that occurs in the matrix of mitochondria during which energy in the bonds of acetyl CoA is transferred to form ATP, NADH, and FADH.
Why is the enzymatic pathway of the citric acid cycle considered to be a cycle?
The enzymatic pathway of the citric acid cycle is considered a "cycle" because it begins and ends with oxaloacetic acid.
Summarize the metabolic pathway of the citric acid cycle - where it occurs, if the process is aerobic or anaerobic, the net chemical reaction, and the net energy transfer
Matrix of the mitochondria; aerobic; net chemical reaction = 4 CO2, 6 H2O; 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2.
What energy molecules are produced from the chemical breakdown of glucose during each of the three steps of cellular respiration?
2 ATP, 2 NADH; 2 NADH; 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2.
Electron transport chain (definition)
The series of the electron carriers that catch electrons and pass them from one to the other in a series.
ETS Step 2 (action)
e- "falling" kinetic energy used by H+ pumps to move H+ from mitochondrial matrix into the outer compartment
ETS Step 3 (action)
ATP synthetase transports H+ down its concentration gradient across the inner membrane.
What is the importance of NADH and FADH2 in energy transfer?
NADH and FADH2 are coenzymes that assist in energy transfer by catching and releasing energy (H+ and e-) at key points in the processes.
What are the three primary steps that take place in the electron transport system?
 NADH, FADH2 releases 3 H+, 3 e- to two O2, 2H2O form;  H+ is powered UP, into the outer compartment;  ATP synthase pushes H+ back into the matrix and uses its kinetic energy to perform oxidative phosphorylation on an ATP.
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