55 terms

CBA: Basic Computer Systems - Hardware and Software

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Terms in this set (...)

Computer
A purely digital device.
Digital
A type of electronic signal that is processed, sent, and stored in bits - binary digits.
Binary Coding
A coding system that uses two numbers - 1 & 0.
Bit
The smallest unit of measurement a computer can understand.
Kilobyte
1000 bytes
Megabyte
1 million bytes
Gigabyte
1 billion bytes
terabyte
1 trillion bytes
Byte
Single character of data, such as a letter, number, etc.
Hardware
The physical components of a computer system.
Peripheral devices
Extra devices such as a printer or scanner. These are not required in order for the computer system to work.
Computer system
The system unit along with input and output devices
System Unit
The part of a computer system that processes data and stores information.
Motherboard
The main circuit board of a computer.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Located on the motherboard; the circuitry that processes information - the "brain of the computer."
System clock
Controls the speed of the processor.
Input devices
Any hardware component that allows a user to enter information into a computer.
Pointing Devices
Mouse, Trackball, Touch Pad, Pen Input
Scanners
Bar Code Reader, Optical Mark Reader, Optical Character Reader, Page Scanner
Multimedia Input Devices
Microphone, Video Camera, Digital Camera
Output device
Any hardware component that can convey information to the user.
Display devices
Provide a soft copy which is data projected on a screen.
Printers
Provide a hard copy which is data printed on paper
Pages Per Minute (PPM)
How the speed of a printer is measured.
Dots Per Inch (DPI)
How the quality of a printer is measured.
Ink-Jet and Laser Jet
Two most common types of printers.
Storage Devices
The media on which data and information are kept.
Communication Devices
Devices that make it possible for a user to communicate with another computer.
Software
Instructions that allow users to communicate with the computer; also called programs.
Operating System Software (OS)
System software that acts as a "go-between" allowing computer hardware and other software to communicate with each other. Examples: Microsoft Windows, Mac OS
File Management
The ability to create, edit, view, print, rename, copy, or delete files and folders.
Platform
The hardware and the operating system together.
Dual Platform
The ability to run more than one operating system.
Basic Functions of an Operating System
User interface, Utilities to configure system, Manage computer resources, Secure data by controlling access
Authentication
The process of validating a user's logon information
Authorization
Associating specific permissions to a username
Utility Software
A type of system software that runs system checks and makes sure everything is working properly
Virus
Programs designed to disrupt or destroy the normal operation of a computer.
Application Software
Programs that allow the user to perform specific tasks; also known as productivity software.
Word Processing
A software application that is designed to create, edit, format, print, and save text-based documents, such as letters, reports, and memos.
Spreadsheet
A software application that stores data in a grid of horizontal rows and vertical columns. The software is designed to analyze data using formulas and calculations.
Presentation
An application software designed to create a visual display of information; can include text, graphics, and video.
Desktop Publishing
An application software that is designed to combine text and graphics to create professional print-ready publications.
Communication Software
Programs that make it possible for a computer to transmit and receive information to and from other computers.
File Formats
An extension at the of a file name typically made up of three characters.
File type: .docx
Microsoft Word Document
File type: .pptx
Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation
File type: xlsx
Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet
File type: .jpg
Graphic Image
File type: .pdf
requires Adobe Reader
File type: .mp3
compressed audio file
File type: .wmv
windows media video
File type: .zip
compressed file format
What to consider when purchasing a laptop
Size, Screen Quality, Brand of CPU, Amount of RAM, Battery Life, Wireless Networking, SD Card Slots, USB Ports
Anti-Virus
A program designed to protect a computer system from viruses.