15 terms

Communities and Populations

Chapter 4 sections 4.2 and 4.4 Biology Miller
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habitat
the area where an organism lives, including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it
niche
full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
keystone species
a species that is critical to the functioning of the ecosystem in which it lives because it affects the survival and abundance of many other species in its community
symbiosis
A close relationship between two organisms in which at least one of the organisms benefits
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
commensalism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it
parasitism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
predator
An organism that hunts and eats other organisms.
prey
An organism that is hunted and eaten by a predator organism.
trophic cascade
When damage done to a keystone species causes damage to the whole food web (ecosystem).
limiting factor
An environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing beyond a certain point.
carrying capacity
The largest number of organsims that the environment of a particular area can sustainably support.
population density
The number of organisms per a specific area.
exponential growth
Growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size. The population increases in a j type shape.
logistic growth
When limiting factors restrict size of population to the carrying capacity of the environment. Forms a more S-shaped type of curve.