76 terms

Unit 2- Ancient Greece

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Crete
small island off the coast of Greece; is said to be where Ancient Greece started
Minoans
earliest settlers of Greece; polytheistic; success of their society was based on trade
Mycenaeans
traders; lived southeastern Europe; best known for involvement in Trojan War
Trojan War
conflict between the Mycenaeans and Troy where Helena was captured and the two city-states battled for 10 years until Troy was ultimately defeated
Homer
poet who wrote the books called the Illiad and the Odyssey telling of Greek's history
Balkan Peninsula
area in southeast Europe bounded by the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the Aegean, Mediterranean, Ionian, and Adriatic Seas
alphabet
first adopted from the Phoenicians
polis
a city state in ancient Greece, especially as considered in its ideal form for philosophical purposes
acropolis
highest and most fortified point within a Greek city-state
citizens
free people of a society
monarchy
rule by king
aristocracy
government headed by a privileged upper class
oligarchy
government in which the ruling belong to a few
phalanx
massive tactical formation of heavy armed foot soldiers
Sparta
city located in South Central Greece; focused on military strength
Dorian
invaders from the north who conquered the southern part of Greece, creating the city-state of Sparta
helots
state-owned slaves
Council of Elders
28 men over the age of 60 who advised the monarch in Sparta
ephor
5 officials who ran day to day affairs
Athens
located in Attica along the water; known for having the first democracy
democracy
government by the people
Solon
leader of Athens who moved the people towards a democracy; rid debt and slavery
archon
chief official
tyrant
people who gained power by force
Pisistratus
tyrant in 546 BCE; weakened the aristocracy; helped to give jobs to the poor
Cleisthenes
Tyrant in 507; set up the Council of 500
Council of 500
legislative body in Greece who decided on laws for the government
legislature
lawmaking body
Mt. Olympus
where the Greek gods lived
oracles
priests or priestesses through whom the gods were thought to speak
Olympics
occurred every 4 years; unified Greek states; held to honor the gods, esp. Zeus
pagan
non-Christian religious tradition
barbaroi
people who did not speak Greek; barbarians
Persian Wars
set of battles between Persia and the Greeks; started when the Ionian Greeks rebelled against the Persian Empire
Ionia
group that was a part of the Greek empire, located across from Greece
Darius I
emperor of the Persian Empire who was angry when Athens was helping the Ionian Greeks
Xerxes
Darius I's son who tried to invade Athens and destroy their city
Salamis
strait where the Persians were defeated by the Greeks
alliance
formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense
Delian League
organized alliance led by Athens after the Persian Wars with the Greeks
Pericles
ruler after the Persian Wars who helped to make Athens great; helped Athens become a direct democracy
stipend
fixed salary
direct democracy
system of government in which citizens take part directly in the day to day affairs of government
representative democracy
system of government in which elected officials represent a group of people
funeral oration
speech at a funeral
juries
group of people who have the authority to make a decision in a legal case
ostracism
to vote to banish or send away a public figure
Peloponnesian War
conflict between Sparta and Athens over power of Greece; Athens Golden Age ends
Athen's Golden Age
period of time in Greece where there was political peace, the economy grew and culture flourished
Thebes
defeated Sparta after the Peloponnesian War
philosophers
lovers of wisdom
sophists
questioned accepted ideas
rhetoric
art of skillful speaking
Socrates
philosopher who challenged people to seek the truth and self-knowledge
Plato
philosopher; distrusted democracy; set up school called the Academy
Socratic Method
series of questions to a student or passing citizen challenging them to examine the implications of their answers
Academy
school set up by Plato
Republic
book written by Plato describing the ideal state of government, without a democracy
Aristotle
student of Plato; believed in a strong central leader
Lyceum
school set up by Aristotle to study all branches of knowledge
Parthenon
temple in Athens dedicated to goddess Athena
tragedies
plays that told stories of human suffering that usually ended in a disaster
comedies
humorous plays that mocked people or customs
Herodotus
"Father of History"
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; ruled the largest Greek empire to have ever existed; conquered the Persian Empire
Philip II
king of Macedonia who built a strong army; dreamed of conquering the Persian Empire
assassinate
murder of a public figure, usually for political reasons
assimilated
absorbed
Alexandria
located in Egypt as a center of culture
stoicism
philosophy that urged people to avoid desires and disappointments by accepting calmly whatever life brought
Pythagoras
developed the formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a right triangle
Euclid
wrote The Elements that became the basis for modern geometry
Aristarchus
argued for the heliocentric theory
heliocentric theory
belief that the sun is the center of the universe
Eratosthenes
calculated the earth's circumference
Archimedes
worked with physics and was able to master the use of the lever and pulley