40 terms

A History of Western Society Chapter 11 and First Week

STUDY
PLAY
Black Death
plague that hit much of Europe after a period of climate change
Great Famine
a terrible famine in 1315-1322 that hit much of Europe after a period of climate change
Flagellants
people who believed that the plague was God"s punishment for sin and sought to do penance by flagellating (whipping) themselves
Hundred Years' War
a war between england and france from 1377-1453, with political and economic causes and consequences
Representative Assemblies
deliberative meetings of lords and wealthy urban residents that flourished in many european countries (1250-1450)
Babylonian Captivity
when the popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. the phrase refers to the 70 years when the hebrews were held captive in babylon
Great Schism
the split in church leadership when there were 2 then 3 popes
Conciliarists
people who believed that the authority in the roman church should rest in a general council composed of clergy, theologians, and lay people, rather than in the pope alone
Confraternities
voluntary lay groups organized by occupation, devotional preference, neighborhood, or charitable activity
Jacquerie
a massive uprising by french peasants in 1358 protesting heavy taxation
English Peasants' Revolt
revolt by english peasants in response to changing economic conditions
Statute of Kilkenny
law issued in 1366 that discriminated against the irish, forbidding marriage between the english and the irish, requiring the use of the irish language, and denying the irish access to ecclesiastical offices
The Third Wave
...Sparta was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity the city-state was known as Lacedaemon, while the name Sparta referred to its main settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece.
Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-Persian Wars. Between 431 and 404 BC, Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War,from which it emerged victorious, though at great cost of lives lost.
Socratic Method
...Socratic method, also known as Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions
Occidentalism vs. Orientialism
Occidens in Latin is the WEST / Oriens, in Latin means the EAST., so when someone speaks of Occidentalism, they are speaking of Western Culture: Europe, USA, and those areas of the world influenced by Western culture.
Westernization
Westernization (USA) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values. Westernization has been an accelerating influence across the world in the last few centuries, with some thinkers assuming westernization to be the equivalent of modernization,a way of thought that is often debated.
Geography of Greece
it is mountainous and temperate, meaning that it did not get very hot or very cold. They could, therefore, do a lot OUTSIDE: athletics, government, theater, etc. With an absence of arable (farmable) land, they became great sailors and merchant seaman who used the "liquid highways" that were available to them to get the resources they needed.
Homer
The Greek poet Homer was born sometime between the 12th and 8th centuries BC, possibly somewhere on the coast of Asia Minor. He is famous for the epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey, which have had an enormous effect on Western culture, but very little is known about their alleged author.
Polis
Ancient Greek concept of a country, or city-state. Examples include Athens and Sparta. While they were both "Greek," they were essentially different countries, or city states. Our words Politics and policy are derived from it.
acropolis
acro means high. Polis is the city state. The government of Ancient Athens was headquartered on a hill, or what they called an ACROPOLIS.
monarchy
rule by one person like a King or Queen.
aristocracy
is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class. The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best".
oligarchy
meaning "to rule or to command") is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people.
Pericles
Pericles in Classical Attic; c. 495 - 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age—specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.
Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that Thucydides, a contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens"
Democracy
Democracy is further defined as (a:) "government by the people; especially : rule of the majority (b:) "a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation
ostrika
An ostracon (Greek: ὄστρακον ostrakon, plural ὄστρακα ostraka) is a piece of pottery, usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel. In an archaeological or epigraphical context, ostraca refer to shards or even small pieces of stone that have writing scratched into them.In Classical Athens, the voting public would write or scratch the name of a person in the shard of pottery. When the decision at hand was to banish or exile a certain member of society, citizen peers would cast their vote by writing the name of the person on the piece of pottery; the vote was counted and if unfavorable the person was exiled for a period of ten years from the city, thus giving rise to the term ostracism.
Ancient Greek Humanism
an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. Humanist beliefs stress the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems.
Ancient Greek Philosophical pursuit of "Truth"
The ancient Greek philosophers like Socrates based their pursuit of truth off of two assumptions: 1) The universe (land, sea, sky, etc) is put together in an orderly way, and subject to absolute and unchanging laws: like gravity, for example. 2) people can understand these laws through logic and reason. This led Socrates to ask questions about EVERYTHING, including sensitive subjects like religion, God, etc. Nothing was beyond question in pursuit of truth. "Man is the measure of all things" said Protagoras.
Greek Drama
The classical Greeks valued the power of spoken word, and it was their main method of communication and storytelling. "To Greeks the spoken word was a living thing and infinitely preferable to the dead symbols of a written language." Socrates himself believed that once something was written down, it lost its ability for change and growth. For these reasons, among many others, oral storytelling flourished in Greece. The temperature and Geography of Greece promoted the development of theater. The first theaters were built into the sides of mountains that afforded perfect acoustics to the large audiences; the warm temperature allowed for nearly year round performances. These plays performed allowed the Greeks to explore subjects indirectly that were often too taboo to speak of directly. The play ANTIGONE by playwright SOPHOCLES is a perfect example.
Socrates
Socrates taught Plato. Plato taught Aristotle. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great.
Three Periods of Roman History
Monarchy, Republic, Empire.
The Roman Empire in the west fell in 476 A.D.
Romance Languages
French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Italian are all rooted in Latin. The ROMANS spoke Latin. The word ROMANce has the word ROMAN embedded in it for that reason. Romance languages are ROMAN, historically, grammatically, and etymologically.
Ancient Roman Culture
Roman conquered Greece, but Greek culture conquered Rome. The Romans valued Greek intellectual skill and adopted much of Greek culture and made it Roman. A clear example are the Greek Gods; these were often given new names, but sometimes not. Nevertheless, they were the same gods. The ROMANS were very tolerant of other people's cultures; if it worked, they made it Roman.
Roman Engineering
The Romans adopted and expanded upon Greek innovations. The Romans also created what we know as cement. Great examples of Roman include aqueducts, the Coliseum, the Pantheon, and arches of triumph.
Spread of Christianity
The Roman road system great helped the spread of Christianity. While persecuted at times, the Romans themselves eventually made Christianity the official state religion.
Fall of Constantinople
this happened in the year 1453. The Ottoman Turks, a Muslim group, conquered the last vestige of the Roman Empire.
Byzantine Empire
...The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, originally founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 476 AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Middle Ages
...Traditionally considered from the time of the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 A.D. to around 1400 A.D.
Prophet Muhammad
...Arguably the most important persona during the Middle Ages, he was the Founder of the Muslim religion: Islam. Born in 570 A.D. and died in 632 A.D.
Scholasticism
As a program, scholasticism began as an attempt at harmonization on the part of medieval Christian thinkers, to harmonize the various authorities of their own tradition, and to reconcile Christian theology with classical and late antiquity philosophy, especially that of Aristotle but also of Neoplatonism. Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics," or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700. Thomas Aquinas's masterwork Summa Theologica is considered to be the pinnacle of scholastic, medieval, and Christian philosophy