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31 terms

Immune System

Non Specific and Specific Immune System, Macrophage, Helper T, Killer T, Plasma B, Memory B
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Immunity
The capacity to resist infections pathogens
Pathogen
Disease Causing Organism
MHC 1
Major Histocompatibility Complex- ALL your cells have the same MHC 1 receptors
Antigen
A particle of piece of a pathogen an immune system recognizes as foreign
1st Defense
Non-Specific immune system
Non Specific Immune System
1. Barrier Defenses 2. Inflammatory Defenses 3. Cellular and Molecular Defenses
Barrier Defenses
Skin and Mucous membrane
Inflammatory Defenses
• Histamine is released at the sign of damage • Blood vessels leak fluid and White Blood Cells
Cellular Defenses
• Macrophages- use pocket transport (phagocytosis) to destroy foreign particles • Natural Killer Cells release hydrolytic enzymes onto target cells to rupture/destroy them
Molecular Defenses
• Interferon- anti-viral • Complement- "glue" - only sticks to pathogens, prevents pathogens from entering cells
Final Defense
Specific Immune System
Specific Immune System
•Recognizes pathogens and develops a sustained immune response
2 Parts of Specific Immune System
1. Cell-Mediated Response 2. Humoral Response
Lymphocytes
White Blood Cells: •Helper T cells •Killer T cells • B cells (plasma/memory) •Macrophage
Macrophage
Searches body tissues for pathogens, consumes pathogens with phagocytosis, kill pathogen with lysosomes, display antigens, now an APC, signals helper T
Helper T
chemically signaled by macrophage, "lock-key"- right helper t must have CD 4 receptor that fits atigen, when helper t fits antigen, helper t activates and releases cytokines which causes lymphocytes to start mitosis
Cell Mediated Response (war action)
"Seek and Destroy"- Killer T's
Cell Mediate Response
virus explodes out of cell, antigen put into MHC 1 receptor, killer t binds to antigen, releases perforin, perforin ruptures infected cell membrane, exposes virus to other immune cells
Humoral System (war action)
Bring in the Artillery
B Cells
receptors: antibodies, different b cells have uniquely shaped antibodies to match specific antigen
Humoral System
b cells antibody binds with antigen (lock-key), b cell receives a message from helper t to activate, activated b cells divide into plasma and memory
Plasma B
produce and secrete 10,000 "keyed" antibodies per hour, each can bind to several antigens at once, has 3 effects
3 effects of antibody/antigen binding
1. Neutralization 2. Macrophage 3. Complement Pore Formation
Memory B
don't actively produce antibodies, remain in blood stream and maintain their cell life cycle independently of helper t, if anitgen enters body again cells recognize it and react quickly releasing antibodies that are "keyed" for that antigen
Helper T and Killer T Memory
Remain in blood stream, when antigen returns into blood stream cells recognize antigen and react quicker
Primary Response
first time pathogen in body, less antibodies released
Secondary Response
second time pathogen in body, cells recognize antigen, more antibodies released
Autoimmune Diseases
Lymphocytes cannot distinguish between your cells and foreign cells, attack your own healthy cells
Autoimmune Disease Examples
1. Juvenile Diabetes 2. SCID
Juvenile Diabetes
Your cells kill the insulin producing cells in your pancreas- body cannot digest glucose
SCID
No working immune system- can't defend against pathogens, caused by gene mutations and defects in t cell and b cell responses