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Non Specific and Specific Immune System, Macrophage, Helper T, Killer T, Plasma B, Memory B


The capacity to resist infections pathogens


Disease Causing Organism


Major Histocompatibility Complex- ALL your cells have the same MHC 1 receptors


A particle of piece of a pathogen an immune system recognizes as foreign

1st Defense

Non-Specific immune system

Non Specific Immune System

1. Barrier Defenses 2. Inflammatory Defenses 3. Cellular and Molecular Defenses

Barrier Defenses

Skin and Mucous membrane

Inflammatory Defenses

• Histamine is released at the sign of damage • Blood vessels leak fluid and White Blood Cells

Cellular Defenses

• Macrophages- use pocket transport (phagocytosis) to destroy foreign particles • Natural Killer Cells release hydrolytic enzymes onto target cells to rupture/destroy them

Molecular Defenses

• Interferon- anti-viral • Complement- "glue" - only sticks to pathogens, prevents pathogens from entering cells

Final Defense

Specific Immune System

Specific Immune System

•Recognizes pathogens and develops a sustained immune response

2 Parts of Specific Immune System

1. Cell-Mediated Response 2. Humoral Response


White Blood Cells: •Helper T cells •Killer T cells • B cells (plasma/memory) •Macrophage


Searches body tissues for pathogens, consumes pathogens with phagocytosis, kill pathogen with lysosomes, display antigens, now an APC, signals helper T

Helper T

chemically signaled by macrophage, "lock-key"- right helper t must have CD 4 receptor that fits atigen, when helper t fits antigen, helper t activates and releases cytokines which causes lymphocytes to start mitosis

Cell Mediated Response (war action)

"Seek and Destroy"- Killer T's

Cell Mediate Response

virus explodes out of cell, antigen put into MHC 1 receptor, killer t binds to antigen, releases perforin, perforin ruptures infected cell membrane, exposes virus to other immune cells

Humoral System (war action)

Bring in the Artillery

B Cells

receptors: antibodies, different b cells have uniquely shaped antibodies to match specific antigen

Humoral System

b cells antibody binds with antigen (lock-key), b cell receives a message from helper t to activate, activated b cells divide into plasma and memory

Plasma B

produce and secrete 10,000 "keyed" antibodies per hour, each can bind to several antigens at once, has 3 effects

3 effects of antibody/antigen binding

1. Neutralization 2. Macrophage 3. Complement Pore Formation

Memory B

don't actively produce antibodies, remain in blood stream and maintain their cell life cycle independently of helper t, if anitgen enters body again cells recognize it and react quickly releasing antibodies that are "keyed" for that antigen

Helper T and Killer T Memory

Remain in blood stream, when antigen returns into blood stream cells recognize antigen and react quicker

Primary Response

first time pathogen in body, less antibodies released

Secondary Response

second time pathogen in body, cells recognize antigen, more antibodies released

Autoimmune Diseases

Lymphocytes cannot distinguish between your cells and foreign cells, attack your own healthy cells

Autoimmune Disease Examples

1. Juvenile Diabetes 2. SCID

Juvenile Diabetes

Your cells kill the insulin producing cells in your pancreas- body cannot digest glucose


No working immune system- can't defend against pathogens, caused by gene mutations and defects in t cell and b cell responses

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