Chapter 2 Key Terms
Terms in this set (21)
Protestant Reformation (CUL)
A 16th century European movement led by Martin Luther that changed the practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church. This led to significant reform in both religious and political beliefs in Europe and eventually encouraged reformers to expand to the Americas.
Colombian Exchange (WXT)
15th and 16th century exchange between the Old World, New World, and Africa. In this exchange the Old World gave the New World food, animals, and diseases. Africa gave the New World slaves. Lastly, the New World gave the Old World god, silver, raw materials, and syphilis. This led initially to population decline and then growth in both regions and eventually to a new form of commerce.
Encomienda System (WXT)
Spanish system used in Mexico in which a Spaniard was given a group of natives to whom they were responsible for religious and economic well being and the natives were used as slaves. This was used to expand the Spanish empire through colonization of the Americas and made slavery profitable for Europeans.
Corporate Colonies (WXT)
Colonies operated by joint stock companies. In colonies like Jamestown this gave all governing power to the company back in England that owned the charter.
Royal Colonies (WXT)
These colonies were to be ruled under the direct authority of the king's government like Virginia. This proved to be both expensive for the Crown to maintain and cumbersome for the citizens of the colony.
Proprietary Colonies (WXT)
Colonies owned by individuals, like Maryland, who had been given a royal charter to own the land. This later created problems between individual rights and goals of the proprietor or the Crown.
Lord Baltimore (CUL)
A nobleman given land in the Chesapeake Bay for his loyal service to King Charles I, where he set up the colony of Maryland. His goal was to create a haven for Catholics, but due to the need for more immigrants the colony attracted Protestants and eventually became an example for religious freedom.
In 1607 the Virginia Company, a joint-stock company, founded this colony with a charter from England's King James I. This was the first permanent English colony in America that other colonies learned from.
Mayflower Compact (POL)
This document was signed on the ship, which established a government that would be ruled by the majority in the Plymouth colony. This is the first written form of government in what is now the United States, and has served as an example for other written forms of government.
Act of Toleration (CUL)
The first colonial statute granting religious freedom to all Christians, also called for the death of anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus. This was created by Cecil Baltimore and was repealed when Protestants resented the Catholic proprietor, revealing early religious tensions in the colonies.
Headright System (MIG)
Started in the Virginia colony and used by others, this gave people who paid tor the passage of themselves or others to receive 50 acres of land. This was used to increase migrants to the colonies and eventually led to conflict between poor workers and wealthy landowners.
Bacon's Rebellion (POL)
Nathaniel Bacon was a poor farmer who led a group of western farmers in a rebellion against Berkeley's government, raiding Indian villages, and eventually defeating the supremacist government. This event highlights the disputes between classes that occurred throughout history and the resistance to royal control that cause the revolution.
Anne Hutchinson (CUL)
A puritan who questioned the doctrines of the puritan authorities, and as a result created the colony of Portsmouth with the idea that faith alone was necessary for salvation. Her new ideas about religion contributed to a large move away from puritanism, and instead provided people with the freedom to choose their beliefs.
Halfway Covenant (CUL)
To become a member of the Puritan congregation, you had to have felt a profound religious experience, but many people in the New World did not experience this, therefore creating a half membership. This significantly weakened the strict Puritan practices, causing religious importance to decline.
King Philip's War (POL)
The New England Confederation fought a vicious war against the Wampanoag Indians from 1675-1676 and eventually prevailed. This ended most conflict with Natives and allowed colonists to become the predominant military force.
Believed in the equality of all men and women, nonviolence, resistance to military, and that religious authority is found within a person's soul. Their views were a radical challenge to authority and they led America towards anti-crown beliefs.
William Penn (CUL)
Was a Quaker convert that inherited money from his father and Pennsylvania from the crown. His method of governing used many modern day ideals like; representative government, freedom of religion, and unrestricted immigration.
An economic policy that valued trade, colonies, and the accumulation of wealth. This was a foundation for the widespread policy of capitalism in America.
Navigation Acts (WOR)
Rules for colonial trade were; trade had to be carried out by English or colonial ships, goods imported into the colonies had to go through England, and specified goods could only be exported through England. These regulations limited colonial growth tremendously and cause colonists to resent the British government.
Indentured Servants (WXT)
Slaves and indentured servants were in high demand in the colonies because they reduced migration were a dependable workforce, and provided cheap labor. This brought lots of racism to the colonies, but it also allowed for them to become very wealthy.
Triangular Trade (WXT)
The trade of slaves that allowed for the trade and transport of sugar cane to New England. The profits made by merchants through this trade route continued the cycle of slavery in the New World.