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37 terms

Anatomy Chapter 6 Skin Worksheet 1

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What are the four membranes found in our bodies?
serous
mucous
cutaneous
synovial
serous membrane

where is it found
lines closed cavities of the body
serous membrane

list some characteristics
--secretes serous fluid for lubrication
--consists of simple squamous epithelium and loose connective tissue
What are the names of serous membranes in these closed cavities?

thorax -
abdominal -
heart -
thorax - pleura
abdominal - peritoneum
heart - pericardium
mucous membrane

where is it found?
lines passages that opens to the exterior of body

oral, nasal, tubes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive sytems

squamous or columnar epithelium
mucous membrane

list some characteristics
--traps particles
--ciliated for movement of substances
--coats olfactory receptors
--lubricate foods in mouth
--protects lining of stomach and intestine from digestive fluid
synovial membrane

where is it found?
lines joint cavities
synovial membrane

list some characteristics
connective tissue only

secretes fluid (synovial fluid)
reduces friction at moveable joints

forms fluid filled sacs around joints
name of fluid filled sacs around joints made by synovial membrane
bursae
cutaneous membrane

where is it found?
the skin - the largest organ in our body

covers outer layer and surface of the body

cutaneous membrane = skin
membrane type in joints, bursae and tendon sheaths
synovial
epithelium of this membrane is always simple squamous epithelium
serous
two membrane types NOT found in the ventral body cavity
cutaneous, synovial
the only membrane type in which goblet cells are found
mucous
the dry membrane with keratinizing epithelium
cutaneous
"wet" membranes
mucous, serous, synovial
adapted for absorption and secretion
mucous
has parietal and visceral layers
serous
what is the body's largest organ
integumentary system (skin)
layers of skin
epidermis
dermis
hypodermis
Skin characteristics and functions
--composed of several tissue types
--temperature homeostasis
--protective barrier
--slows down loss of water
--contains immune system cells
--synthesizes chemicals like Vitamin D
--Excretes small amounts of waste
layers of epidermis
stratum corneum
startum lucidum
startum granulosm
startum spinosum
stratum basale
general characteristics of epidermis
--lacks blood vessels
--rests on basement membrane
--made of stratified squamous epithelium
where is the epidermis thickest?
palms and soles
what produces melanin?
melanocytes
describe keratinization
- new cells are produced via mitosis in deepest layer of epidermis
- new cells push older cells to surface
- cells fill with the protein keratin as they move from the basal surface to the stratum corneum
- oldest cells produce the outer layer of cells resistant to abrasion and water
- oldest cells slough off in process called "desquamation"
what layer has keratinocytes producing lots of keratin?
stratum granulosm
what is the outer most superficial layer
stratum corneum
which layer has dead dehydrated cells?
stratum corneum
which layer is the deepest layer?
stratum basale
four types of cells types in the epidermis
keratinocytes (produces keratin)
melanocytes (pigment cells deep in epidermis)
merkel cells (sensory cells)
langerhans cells (fixed macrophages)
which layer has cells that are undergoing active reproduction?
stratum basale
what do ridges, called dermal papillae, create?
fingerprints
name 3 functions of melanin
1. provides skin color
2. absorbs ultraviolet radiation
3. helps prevent DNA mutations
what causes increased cell division in the skin?
when skin is rubbed or pressed regularly
what is the thickened area of skin caused by increased rubbing and pressing called?
calluses
keratinized conical masses on toes are called?
corns