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What are the four membranes found in our bodies?


serous membrane

where is it found

lines closed cavities of the body

serous membrane

list some characteristics

--secretes serous fluid for lubrication
--consists of simple squamous epithelium and loose connective tissue

What are the names of serous membranes in these closed cavities?

thorax -
abdominal -
heart -

thorax - pleura
abdominal - peritoneum
heart - pericardium

mucous membrane

where is it found?

lines passages that opens to the exterior of body

oral, nasal, tubes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive sytems

squamous or columnar epithelium

mucous membrane

list some characteristics

--traps particles
--ciliated for movement of substances
--coats olfactory receptors
--lubricate foods in mouth
--protects lining of stomach and intestine from digestive fluid

synovial membrane

where is it found?

lines joint cavities

synovial membrane

list some characteristics

connective tissue only

secretes fluid (synovial fluid)
reduces friction at moveable joints

forms fluid filled sacs around joints

name of fluid filled sacs around joints made by synovial membrane


cutaneous membrane

where is it found?

the skin - the largest organ in our body

covers outer layer and surface of the body

cutaneous membrane = skin

membrane type in joints, bursae and tendon sheaths


epithelium of this membrane is always simple squamous epithelium


two membrane types NOT found in the ventral body cavity

cutaneous, synovial

the only membrane type in which goblet cells are found


the dry membrane with keratinizing epithelium


"wet" membranes

mucous, serous, synovial

adapted for absorption and secretion


has parietal and visceral layers


what is the body's largest organ

integumentary system (skin)

layers of skin


Skin characteristics and functions

--composed of several tissue types
--temperature homeostasis
--protective barrier
--slows down loss of water
--contains immune system cells
--synthesizes chemicals like Vitamin D
--Excretes small amounts of waste

layers of epidermis

stratum corneum
startum lucidum
startum granulosm
startum spinosum
stratum basale

general characteristics of epidermis

--lacks blood vessels
--rests on basement membrane
--made of stratified squamous epithelium

where is the epidermis thickest?

palms and soles

what produces melanin?


describe keratinization

- new cells are produced via mitosis in deepest layer of epidermis
- new cells push older cells to surface
- cells fill with the protein keratin as they move from the basal surface to the stratum corneum
- oldest cells produce the outer layer of cells resistant to abrasion and water
- oldest cells slough off in process called "desquamation"

what layer has keratinocytes producing lots of keratin?

stratum granulosm

what is the outer most superficial layer

stratum corneum

which layer has dead dehydrated cells?

stratum corneum

which layer is the deepest layer?

stratum basale

four types of cells types in the epidermis

keratinocytes (produces keratin)
melanocytes (pigment cells deep in epidermis)
merkel cells (sensory cells)
langerhans cells (fixed macrophages)

which layer has cells that are undergoing active reproduction?

stratum basale

what do ridges, called dermal papillae, create?


name 3 functions of melanin

1. provides skin color
2. absorbs ultraviolet radiation
3. helps prevent DNA mutations

what causes increased cell division in the skin?

when skin is rubbed or pressed regularly

what is the thickened area of skin caused by increased rubbing and pressing called?


keratinized conical masses on toes are called?


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