97 terms

Gross Anatomy Lecture Introduction (1st Exam)

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Anatomy
to Cut apart
Gross (also means 144)
What you see with the naked eye
Microscopic
What you cannot see with the naked eye
Physiology
Focuses on function
Homeostasis
Internal Balance of Humans
1. Regional
2. Systemic
3. Clinical (applied)
What are the 3 approaches to anatomy
Regional Anatomy
Anatomy based on the organization of the body into parts; head, neck, and trunk
Systemic Anatomy
Anatomical approach that is organized by organ systems that work together to carry out specific functions. None of the organ system function in isolation
Integumentary System (dermatology)
Consists of the skin and its appendages, such as hair and nails. The skin is an extensive sensory organ that forms a protective covering for the body
Skeletal System (osteology, orthopedics)
Consists of bones and cartilage. Provides support for the body and protects vital organs. Works with muscular system to provide movement
Articular System (arthrology)
Consists of joints and their associated ligaments. Connects the bony parts of the skeletal system and provides sites where movement occurs.
Muscular System (myology)
Consists of muscles that act to move or position parts of the body
Nervous System (neurology)
Consists of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (Nerves and ganglia). Controls and coordinates the functions of the organ system.
Circulatory system (angiology)
Consists of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems, which function in parallel to distribute fluids within the body
Cardiovascular system (cardiology)
Consists of the heart and blood vessels that propel and conduct blood throughout the body.
Lymphatic system
Consists of a network of lymphatic vessels that withdraws excess tissue fluid (lymph) from the bodys interstitial fluid compartment, filters it through the lymph nodes, and returns it to the bloodstream.
Digestive/alimentary System (gastroenterology)
Consists of the organs and glands associated with the ingestion, mastication, deglutition (swallowing), digestion, and absorption of food and the elimination of feces after the nutrients have been absorbed
Respiratory System (pulmonology)
Consists of the airpassages and lungs that supply oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide
Urinary system (urology)
Consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra, which filter blood and subsequently produce, transport, store, and intermittently excrete liquid waste
reproductive system (obstetrics and gynecology and andrology)
consists of the gonads that produce oocytes and sperms and the other genital organs concerned with reproduction.
Endocrine system (endocrinology)
Consists of discrete ductless glands as well as cells of the intestine and blood vessel walls and specialized nerve endings that secrete hormones
Clinical (applied) anatomy
Approach to anatomy that emphasizes aspects of the structure and function of the body important in the practice of medicine, dentistry, and the allied health sciences. Encompasses both regional and systemic approaches.
Eponyms
Names and structures derived from the names of people
Latin and Greek
Anatomical terminology is based on what two languages
Prone
Body lies face down
Supine
Body lies face up
Anatomical position
Standing erect, soles on the ground, legs together and touching, head, eyes, and toes facing forward, palms at side and facing forward
Anterior/ventral
Belly/front
Posterior/dorsal
back/backside
Superior/cranial
toward the head
Rostral
Beak
Inferior/caudal
toward the feet or tail
Medial
Toward midline
Lateral
away from midline
Bilateral (kidneys)
pair structures with right and left members
Unilateral (spleen)
Structures that occur on one side only
Ipsilateral (right thumb and right great toe)
Occurring on the same side of the body
Contralateral (right and left hand)
Occurring on the opposite sides of the body.
outer/external/superficialis
Nearer to the surface
Medius/middle
between the superficial and deep structure
deep/internal/profoundus
farther from surface
Inferomedial
Nearer to the feet and closer to the median plane
Superolateral
Nearer to the head and further from the median plane
Cephalic
Head
Buccal
Cheek
Occipital
Posterior part of the head
Cervical
Neck
Deltoid/acromial
Shoulder
Axilla
armpit
Brachium
Arm (shoulder to elbow)
Cubital
anterior surface of the elbow
olecranon
Posterior surface of the elbow
antebrachium
forearm (between elbow and wrist)
Palmar
anterior surface of the hand
Digital
fingers
Thoracic
Chest area
Scapular
Superior portion of the back, where the shoulder blade sits
Abdominal
area that is inferior to the diaphragm
Umbilical
Navel
Pubic/pelvic
Area of the pelvis
Lumbar
Loin, Inferior portion of the back
Sacral
Where the sacrum is found, inferior end of vertebral column, inferior to lumbar region
Gluteal
Buttocks
Inguinal
Region where the trunk meets the lower limb
Femoral
Region of the thigh
Popliteal
Posterior side of the knee
Patellar
Anterior side of the knee
Crural
Region of the leg, space between the knee and the ankle
Sural
region of the calf, posterior part of the leg
Plantar
Sole of the foot
Median/Median saggital/ Midline
Vertical plane passing through the middle of the body, divides into equal right and left halves
Sagittal (many)
vertical line passing through the body parallel to the medial plane
Paramedium Plane
A plane parallel and near the median plane
Frontal/coronal
Vertical plane passing through the body at right angles to the sagittal planes
Mid-frontal plane
Passing through the body separating it into equal posterior and anterior halves
transverse/axial/ horizontal/ cross section
Horizontal planes passing through the body at right angles to the sagittal and frontal planes
Oblique planes
Planes passing through the body at an angle other than 90 degrees
Dorsal cavity (dorsum- L., Back)
Space in superior and posterior parts of the body, contains nervous tissues surrounded by CSF
Cranial Cavity
contains the brain
Spinal (vertebral) Cavity
Contains spinal cord
Ventral cavity ( Venter- L.,belly)
Most people think of this as the main body cavity, has soft organs dealing with function
Thoracic cavity
Superior cavity, 2 pleural cavities that contain lungs lined by pleura
Mediastinum
Central area between R and L cavities, contains the pericardial cavity where the heart is found, lined by pericardium
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Inferior cavity, contains two functionally different cavities (abdominal and pelvic )
Abdominal Cavity
Upper and larger cavity, contains digestive organs, lined by peritoneum
Pelvic Cavity
Lower and smaller cavity, contains bladder, rectum, and reproductive organs
Dorsal Cavity
Cushions and protects the CNS, contains the cranial and spinal cavities
Haploid> Diploid (Zygote) > Morula > Blastula (with coelem)> all body cavities
What are the 5 stages of embryonic development
Cranial Cavity
Contains brain
Spinal Cavity
Contain spinal cord
Ventral cavity
Functions in protection; allows organ movement; lining prevents friction. Contains the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
Thoracic Cavity
Contains two pleural cavities and the Mediastinum (which contains the pericardial cavity)
Medistinum
Is an area not a cavity, found within the thoracic cavity, contains the pericardial cavity, trachea, esophagus, and major BV
Pericardial Cavity
Surrounds the heart and is lined with pericardium
Coelem
forms all body cavities in embryonic development
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Contains the abdominal and pelvic cavities
They are not 2 different cavities just distinguished regions (superior/inferior) of a single cavity
What is odd about the Abdominal and Pelvic Cavities
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