Western Civ Exam #3
Terms in this set (303)
Who is associated with an approach to history that emphasizes fact gathering?
According to this Egyptian concept there is a knowable order in the universe
As noted in class, what did the ancient Egyptians divide into units of 12?
Who in ancient Egypt was responsible for the annual flooding of the Nile?
In class we considered the passage in Genesis where Joseph offers advice to the pharaoh. We noted that this passage illustrated ancient Egypt's
emphasis on order and predictability
As noted in class, Antigone honored her father Creon and she honored her society's moral demands. But there was something she honored more. What was this?
Antigone honored the will of the gods that her brother's body should be properly buried, which shows her commitment to excellence.
theos + logos
zoe + logos
aster + nomos
ge + logos
makros + econ + nomos
The Venus of Willendorf statuette was probably designed in prehistoric times with what concern in mind?
This statuette represented fertility, with the concern in mind that people wanted to reproduce because many infants died young.
What do the cave paintings at Lascaux, France, depicts?
animals, and man's mastery over them
Hammurabi is remembered for
an elaborate code of law
To what extent did Socrates comply with the demand that he stop teaching philosophy?
Socrates was threatened with death unless he stopped teaching philosophy, but he refused to be quiet, so he was forced to drink poision.
The Tower of Babel discussed in Genesis 11 was a Mesopotamian
Genesis 1 describes 3 days and nights before the creation of the Sun. As noted in class, it may be that the Hebrew writer was making a statement about a Mesopotamian god. If this is correct, what was the statement?
The Mesopotamians considered the sun to be a god, but the Hebrews advocated the superiority of our God in that He created the sun, and not until the fourth day.
According to the U.S. Constitution, each state must have how many members in the U.S. Senate?
What did prehistoric peoples paint on cave walls and why?
They painted pictures of animals that don't exist anymore, like woolly mammoths, hoping this would magically make the animals appear so they could eat them.
What characteristics do animals and humans share?
-similar body plans
-similar genetic makeups
What makes humans unique creatures?
-ability to enjoy beauty
-desire to live
-desire to know
-ability to alter environment
-keep busy doing something of worth
-self-defeating & self-deceiving
-carry small deaths within us
-superiority over creatures
-desire to organize world
-more complicated relationships
-unnecessarily complicate things
-desire to obtain God-like powers
-desire to achieve equality with/mastery over God
-want a good life, but do things to mess it up
What are the characteristics of Mesopotamia's natural environment?
It is hot, lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, located in Middle Easter of Africa in present-day Iraq, vast plain, swamps and flash floods and hilly ruins of cities
What did the Mesopotamians believe about nature?
Dust storms and flash floods mean the gods are angry and warring and unpredictably throwing chaos on the people.
What are the elements that go into creature a culture?
-towns and tradesmen
-noblemen and kings
-temples and priests
-administrators and artists
-writing and technical skills
What is Hammurabi remembered for?
the Code of Hammurabi, the oldest law-book in the world (1760 BC)
-if you are found guilty or you lie in court, you die
-elaborate system of law, adds to efficiency
What does it mean to say people are mixed creatures?
We were created from dust and then God breathed life into us, so we are the stuff of nature and the breath of God, which implies a moral struggle.
What is the oldest language?
Mesopotamian form of writing, cuneiform--wrote stories and laws
Who was the first empire builder?
Sargon of Mesopotamia
-believed in conquest and brutalization of the enemy
-organized warfare with armies
-human capacity for profound cruelty and brutalization
-slavery is normal
What "first" things did Mesopotamia have as the first civilization?
-First organized political system and political hierarchy
-First laws and law book
-First empire builder
-First organized warfare
-First system of international trade
-First organized, set sacred places
-First sophisticated art
-First mastery over nature
What were the Mesopotamian sacred places called?
Ziggurats (Tower of Babel)
-had representations of gods as statues
What did Mesopotamian art indicate?
Sophisticated art indicated wealth and portrayed mastery over nature
-taking control of horses, or taking lion w/ bow & arrow, shows valor
-some pity for animals portrayed in art
How did the Hebrew's God compare to the Mesopotamian gods?
Mesopotamians: sun god
Hebrews: our God created the sun on the fourth day
Mesopotamians: gods of wrath
Hebrews: God of compassion
Hebrews were not impressed by Ziggurats and had no representations of their gods
Epic of Gilgamesh
epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia; among the earliest known works of literary fiction; shares many similarities with the Biblical story of the flood, but has a negative undertone
What was ancient Egypt's life based on?
the Nile; was the Egyptian's source for growing crops
Why were some Egyptian's mummified?
they believed when a man died his soul needed his body and would suffer if the body crumbled into dust; mummifying preserved the bodies; only the elite were mummified; strong sense of an afterlife
What were the Egyptian pyramids used for?
They held the tombs of rich and powerful people (the super elite: kings) and were homey dwelling places for the soul when it returned to visit its body. Wall paintings give us a very good idea of what life in ancient Egypt was like
What did the Rosetta stone make possible?
It contained ancient Greek, another Egyptian script, and Egyptian hieroglyphics and made possible the deciphering of these hieroglyphics
What were the Mesopotamian legacies?
-1st complicated civilization
-writing: law, literature
-division of time (units of 60) - clock
-division of circle (360 degrees)
-development of Hebrew identity
How was Mesopotamia's outlook on the environment different from Egypt's?
Mesopotamia: gods are unpredictable and capricious; flooding of rivers and crops means gods are against us; unpredictable; afterlife is dark and gross for everyone (life is horrible; when you die it gets worse); negative outlook shaped by environment
Egypt: there is a knowable moral order (Maat); flooding of Nile was predictable, even considered part of Pharaoh's job; famine is rare; order, stability, river brings fertile soil; much less pessimistic outlook; they know their society is better off than most; when the elite die, they will probably make it through okay; the afterlife is pretty much like this one
Who was the Venus of Willendorff?
A statue that represented fertility (many cultures have something like this) because infants died young and they wanted to reproduce; until recently, children were economic assets (more farmers!) but now they are expensive
What was Jericho?
in Israel, the oldest city and first gated community, implies desire to be kept in and fear of enemies, creativity, more security
What was Catalhoyuk?
in Turkey, tightly packed homes; the out walls of the outer homes acted as community walls; bodies buried under living spaces; we are the only creatures who take care of the dead
What were the caves at Lascaux, France?
caves with animal paintings
Who was Otzi?
-CREATIVITY and VIOLENCE
-found frozen in ice on Austrian/Italian border (c. 3300)
-creativity: bearskin soles, deer hide tops, tree bark netting, grass insulation
-intestines full of parasites (probably in continual pain)
-stomach held 2 kinds of meat
-traces of others' blood on his knife
-had arrowhead lodged in his shoulder
What was the great pyramid of Cheops?
-about 2.3 million finely-cut stone blocks
-some blocks weigh as much as 50 tons; these were brought from quarries about 500 miles away
-probably between 70000 and 100000 men worked on the pyramid for about 20-30 years
-high stability, predictability, and order
What was Maat?
the divine order of justice against which one's soul would be weighed after death (learned through observing)
-there is a knowable natural law
-negative confessions from the Book of the Dead about all the bad things you have not done
-humans observe to learn the laws of the world (there is a noble moral order)
-points to negative Mesopotamian outlook and positive Egyptian outlook (we can figure out what gods want)
How do you read hieroglyphics?
read any direction, but read into direction of head and direction of feet; there are symbols for sounds just like the letters of the English alphabet
How were Greeks different from the Persians?
Greeks were not used to living under the rule of a king and being part of a great empire; able to fight to keep their independence from the Persians because they were always thinking ahead and trying out new ideas, and easily adopted to their new strategies
How does Gombrich characterize the Athenians?
They were a small, independent group of people under great leadership, with great intelligence and the wisdom to plan ahead, able to use trickery and cunning to their advantage, and always thinking up new successful ideas.
How powerful were the Greek legacies?
have had more impact on our lives today than the Mesopotamians or the Egyptians
What are the 4 main Greek legacies?
How did the Greeks feel toward reason?
emphasized reason and rationality (especially the Athenians); when you say "be reasonable," you're referring to the Greeks; reason=good use of the mind
How did Greeks feel about naturalism?
focused on naturalism and the activity of nature and the earth; speaking about the weather scientifically, not saying the gods influence the weather
What scientific breakthroughs did the Greeks make?
first people to pursue the discipline of medicine
What was Hippocrates' opinion of epilepsy?
spoke of epilepsy as not being more divine than other diseases, but as having a natural cause and in need of a natural anecdote; most people don't understand epilepsy, but he urged them to
What was the Greek conception of history?
it should be nicely told, organized, interesting and accurate, and rooted in evidence; a historical conversation must start with evidence; Greeks are first to take this approach to history
Who was Thucydides?
an early Greek historian
What is Telos?
a goal or end point
What is the Telos of life?
the end of life is death, but the goal of life is a specific purpose, so the telos of life is both death and a purpose
What is Apete?
What did the Greeks believe about Apete?
Apete (excellence) is rare; everyone should strive for some form of true excellence; you can't be excellent at everything (like TV watching); Apete=Telos of life; some musicians, chefs, and athletes are excellent
How does Aristotle view Apete?
he urges us to pursue excellence, to devote your life to one excellent thing to strive for, since life is short, so organize your life with telos in mind;
"Everyone that has the power to live according to his own choice should set up for himself some object for the good life to aim at with reference to which he will then do all his acts, since not to have one's life organized in view of some end is the mark of great folly."
What did Aristotle believe about mankind's bovine existence?
most people hand their minds over to the herd and follow what everyone else is doing and don't think about things for themselves;
"Now the mass of mankind are evidently quite slavish in their tastes, preferring a life suitable to beats."
How should we overcome a bovine existence?
if most people are doing something and then all of a sudden everyone is doing it (a fad), stop and think about it, and contemplate why everyone is doing it--don't just always go along with the herd! be aware of the new movement, be in possession of your own mind, and participate only if you want to
What is Antigone?
a Greek play by Sophacles
Antigone's brother was a traitor, killed in battle, her father the king, Creon, decided he should not be buried, but Antigone insists that he is buried and is executed
How does Antigone demonstrate Apete?
Antigone has a commitment to her father (the king) and to society, but a higher commitment to the will of the gods that bodies should be buried; she is brave and excellence and has a primary commitment to the will of the gods because they are not mortal; she is willing to risk causing trouble to do the right thing
What did Socrates do?
philosopher in Athens
-questioned people about what they believe and why (where did you get this idea? on what is it based?)
-refers to himself as a troublemaker; he wants to shake people up so they will free themselves from the herd and have control over their own minds
-more interest in his student's minds than the students had; challenged them to learn hard things
-he is forced to drink poison because he refuses to shut up because he's committed to the good of the city, the city officials just can't see it
-good example of wanting what is best for people
What is Plato's allegory of the cave?
-people grow up in cave chained and can only look straight forward; various objects and fires behind them; sometimes people walk between them and the fires; people only see the shadows of the people and the objects, distorted shadows, but for them it's real; when one breaks free and sees the sun, the light and the recognition is painful; then they must tell the other people in the cave about reality!
-life is a world of misshapen shadows, but once you break free and get past the pain of shock, your job is to tell others what is real--life is interesting, but the herd doesn't notice!
-he did not go on strike with other teachers because he was there to teach, not to be political
-he was not widely liked, but widely respected
-he did not intend to cause trouble, but he had a higher commitment to teaching!
-did not try to be friends with students, but made a mark
Who was Alexander the Great's teacher?
Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher and teacher of all mankind
What city did Alexander found in Egypt?
Alexandria, named after himself; was for a long time one of the richest and most powerful cities in the world
According to Gombrich, why did Alexander's empire not survive long after his death?
there was no one worthy to take his place when he died and everyone fought over the empire until it fell apart; there was no one to force them to live as one people, and they liked being independent
Who is Prof. Jones's model for teaching?
What is Prof. Jones's perspective?
focus on the future, like 20 years from now; challenge his students to become competent and excellent to honor the Lord and benefit soceiety
What are the elements of the national crisis?
-related to our future; we have to get serious about excellence
-50% of college grads have no jobs
-we must pick up skills in college to prepare us for the future; if we don't, we'll make the economy worse
U.S. Senators stand for re-election every how many years
Who is Joe Biden?
Vice Pres. of U.S.
Who was president during the American Civil War?
The Emancipation Proclamation was concerned with what particular problem?
freeing the slaves
In our solar system, which planet is second closest to the sun?
What nation was the U.S.' key adversary in the First World War?
The War of 1812 pitted the U.S. against...
When and where was Aristotle born?
Greece in 384 BC
How did Aristotle change philosophy?
first Western thinker to divide philosophy into branches
Who did Aristotle tutor?
Alexander the Great
Who was Aristotle's teacher?
What is the prof's perspective on Facebook?
the FB world is fake and frivolous; for some reason having hundreds of FB friends is what we want; everyone longs for friendship; FB has not eased this longing; many people are too busy gaining popularity on FB to make friendships; FB makes you live in 2 worlds; you hang on to what others think of your posts; you may even feel yourself changing
What are the benefits of friendship?
-share your prosperity with
-guard your stuff
-take refuge in
-help you not make mistakes
-help you in your weaknesses
-help you figure out how to think and act
-hold states together
What is a friendship of utility?
friendship of usefulness; you and your friend both gain something from each other and help each other; not necessarily a bad friendship, but not friendship of the soul; disappears when each no longer finds use in the other
What is friendship of pleasure?
someone you have the most fun with, enjoy being with; common for kids; disappears when the pleasure disappears and your feelings change
Why can't you have many true friends?
true friendship takes a long time to establish, familiarity and experience; it requires an excess of love and takes a lot to please one person so much
What is the cost of pursuing the friendships of many people?
you may lose the deep friendships of one or two people
What is a true friend?
someone who likes you just because they do, not because you have fun or you help each other; someone who really wants what's best for you; can state what your faults are and loves you nonetheless; true friends can have dark moments and still love each other, overcome the darkness and still thrive; VERY RARE; cares about your interests; prays for you genuinely; self-sacrifices willingly for you; takes a lot of time
separation by time and distance takes an inevitable toll on friendship
most people don't understand deep friendship until they're old
What are the best memories made of?
made with people who are closest to you, when you're paying attention to what's going on; you can recall them like pulling books off a shelf; we want people around us who really want to bee there and really like us; our best memories are not just with the people who are closest to us, but the close people who want to be with us; the meaning of memories changes over time
Why are young people not "proper hearers" of lectures on political science?
they are inexperienced, tend to follow their passions, and seek action over knowledge
With what do most people identify happiness?
Why is it an error to mistake happiness for amusement?
happiness is the result of a life of suffering, and amusement is merely relaxation
What are the costs of constant pursuit of distraction and amusement?
loss of actual friendship; amusement becomes addicting; time is lost; fail to learn and understand things
What are opportunity costs?
if I'm doing something, I can't be doing something else; time spent on one thing can't be spent on another
What is magical thinking and what should we do about it?
the belief that you are special and things will magically work out for you even if they don't work out for everyone else; what is true in general is not true for me; abandon this thinking!!
How do small decisions affect the few big decisions of life?
big decisions are made up of small decisions; we are composed of the hundreds of small decisions we make throughout our life, and we make big decisions
What is self-deception?
telling ourselves things that are not true and believing them; we know things are dangerous, but it is challenging to resist those dangerous things; self-deception is hard to see in yourself but we can see it in others; involves magical thinking of telling yourself stories that what is true in general is not true for you
What does the pursuit of some kind of excellence that is unique to humans involve?
reason (emphasized by the Greeks)
What is "characteristic of good men"?
to not go wrong and not let their friends go wrong
What does Aristotle say about the possibility of slaves as friends?
you cannot be friends with your slaves because you are not equal, you use them and benefit from them, and they are a tool you use
How is friendship and obligation affected by personal or relational distance?
the extent of friendship is the extent of association, and friends who are unequals must render what is in proportion to their superiority or inferiority
Who is "not honored"?
the man who contributes nothing good to the common stock
What are the characteristics of the good man?
-understands that his actions have consequences and affect other people
-has a life goal (telos) and lives a worthwhile life
-understands importance of congruence
-honest in what he says and does
-is a friend to himself
-mind is filled with subjects worthy of contemplation
-has good memories (on the whole), the sort one would recount at the end
-understands how to treat amusement
-knows what is good in general and understands that this applies to him
-passion is tempered by reason
-does not need the law
-contributes to the common good
-understands that the pursuit of goodness is a lifelong pursuit and that it can be derailed
-makes living a good life seem easy, but there's been hardship on the way
-has hopes for the future
What does it mean to live with congruence?
there is no distinction between your private life and your public life when it comes to who you are as a person; you are the same person in all contexts
How is a good man a friend to himself?
-in harmony with himself
-does what's best for himself
-sees his faults but still finds his life worthwhile
Why are laws necessary for most people?
we don't know what is best for ourselves
Why do we obey laws?
we don't want to be punished
What does the Latin word "passus" mean?
What does it mean to follow your passions?
you are willing to suffer to do what you love; you keep the goal and take the pain for the long-term pleasure of accomplishment
How should one follow their passions?
with reason, and avoiding magical thinking
What does the Greek word "eudaimonia" mean?
contentedness of soul and spirit; living well; using reason
What is the one final end everyone is pursuing?
What constitutes happiness?
contentment of soul; prosperity of soul; sense that life is going well; liking your life
What is Aristotle's point about a "complete life"? Why can't a boy be happy, in Aristotle's sense of the term?
you must have experienced a complete life to feel blessed and happy after all your struggles and accomplishments; a boy can't be happy because he is not yet capable of acts of virtuous activity of soul
What are the characteristics of the "happy man"?
happiness that is permanent and not easily changed, despite life's fortunes and misfortunes; will do and contemplate what is excellent, will bear the chances of life nobly
What constants undercurrent the prof's life?
commitment to Jesus of Nazareth; resistance to the herd; intellectual engagement; sense of accountability (responsibility); loathing for wasting time; goal-setting
Why is Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics" important?
it is one of the best books ever written, has large influence on everything, and can change your life
Why aren't many young people concerned with retrospect?
they haven't lived much life and are inexperienced
Why is some fear of death a good thing?
most people don't recognize their death; some fear helps you remember to be careful because you have little time; death is a serious event, so don't indulge in magical thinking and self-deception
What is prospection?
What defines the prof's present season of life?
change of focus
What is the pursuit of eudaimonia?
elements of living well
What is the prof's pursuit of eudaimonia?
1. enduring friendship with wife
2. good father
3. fight for education
when death comes, he wants to recognize his failures but say that he succeeded in these 3 things
-none of these pursuits of eudaimonia violate his commitment to Christ
What shapes who you are?
context, genetics, personality, strengths/weaknesses, the decisions you have made
What is the Olympics analogy?
in the Olympics, it's not the most beautiful who is crowned; it's the few who win of those who compete; it is not the most virtuous people who are happy, but those who act, because some of those who act will win the noble and good things in life
Where does pleasure often come from?
How must we sometimes struggle?
to achieve something as a result of struggle and have a greater pleasure (sometimes you should resist the desire to not struggle!)
We do we have little control over?
time, difficulties/tragedies of life, external goods/basic needs
How do we have some control over time?
life choices can increase life expectancy
How can we sometimes control difficulties/tragedies?
-sometimes we bring difficulties on ourselves
-you can't always offer consolation for tragedies
Why do we need some external goods?
our basic needs must be fulfilled before we can be truly happy
For Aristotle, genuine happiness exists in accordance with complete...
Why is praise appropriate to people of virtue?
as a result of virtue, men tend to do noble deeds
What is the difference between intellectual and moral virtue?
intellectual virtue=result of learning/education and shaping your mind
moral virtues=result of practice and habit
How does a person become brave or just?
by doing brave and just acts
What can you practice?
anything, even kindness, trustworthiness, or bravery; if you think you don't have to practice, that's magical thinking
"[S]tates of character arise out of like activites..."
activities we exhibit must be of a certain kind because the states of character correspond to the differences between these
What should be a primary aim of education from youth?
delight in and be pained by the things that we ought; enjoy the things we ought and hate the things we ought because it has the greatest bearing on virtue of character
"[T]o feel ______ and ________ rightly or wrongly has no small effect on our actions"
How do people who "take refuge in theory" go wrong?
they think they are being philosophers and will become good in this way, but they won't, because they are listening attentively but not obeying
"to ______ the mark is easy, to _______ it difficult"
miss; hit; you can fail many ways, but you can only succeed one way
How do you keep an enduring friendship with someone?
-communication (don't let your mind drift when they're talking)
-commitment (when it's challenging and when it's not)
-attentiveness (continue to want to know more about how they're feeling)
How can you be a good parent?
-encourage children as individuals (they're different)
-provide a good model (congruence between home and public)
-understanding that actions have consequences
Why does Aristotle think that "acting justly" is not easy?
to do just things as a result of a certain state of character is not in our power and hard to know and must be done in a certain way
About what kind of things do people deliberate?
things that are in our power and can be done
With what is deliberation concerned?
things that happen in a certain way for the most part, but in which the outcome is obscure, and with things in which it is indeterminate
"virtue is on our ____________, and so too vice"
Aristotle uses an analogy of a boxer to discuss the person of courage. What is his point?
brave man chooses noble deeds of war at that cost because the end is virtuous, even if the end contains the blows and pains received in the courageous act
What are the characteristics of the "self-indulgent man"?
craves for all pleasant things at the cost of everything else, and is pained when he gets it and when he doesn't
What does the temperate man "crave"?
the things he ought, as he ought, when he ought
How do we furnish our minds with good resources and subjects of contemplation?
-talking to mentors
-reading quality books that have stood the test of time
-considering the quality of everything you are voluntarily putting in your mind
What are the characteristics of the truthful person?
-when they have the opportunity to cheat and could get away with it, they don't cheat
-concerned with the state of his soul and his character
-practices honesty to become an honest person
-truthful with himself; listens to conscience
-listens to the truth, knows the truth, accepts the truth
What is the difference between the buffoon and the boorish person?
buffoon=caries humor to excess at all costs, and would rather raise a laugh than say what is becoming or what is painful; is the slave of his humor
boorish person=cannot make a joke or put up with those who do, contributes nothing, finds fault with everything
"relaxation and amusement are thought to be a _________ element in life"
On what moral point does Aristotle disagree with Socrates?
whether or not a man acts with incontinence or only by reason of ignorance
What is the "incontinent man" like?
unable to act, acts voluntarily but is not wicked but half-wicked, does not act of malice aforethought; does not abide by the conclusions of his deliberate, does not deliberate at all
What 2 pleasures concerning truth do we battle between?
pleasure of telling the truth VS. pleasure of getting off the hook by telling a small lie
Why can't you say "it's never too late"?
it's constantly too late; saying it's never too late is magical thinking; you can't take back your words or get back your wasted time; at some point in your life, it is too late to become thoughtful because you never practiced thoughtfulness; it could be too late for you to be corrupt because you always practiced honesty
How should we fear?
fear the right things in the right way, in the right moment, at the right time; some fear can motivate us
What should we fear?
-prospect of a squandered life, or a squandered day
-being uptight and too worried about time
-not striving to obtain worthwhile goals
-giving up; complacency
What happy medium do we need to find regarding time?
we can't constantly think about making the most of our time or we will never enjoy life, but we can't ignore making the most of our time or we will lose it
How does the virtuous person deal with anger?
be angry at the right things, with the right people, in the right way, at the right time
What should anger us?
-things that contribute to moral instability
-ourselves, when we don't do or say the right thing
-others who jeopardize people's lives/have disregard for the wellbeing of others
"by choosing what is good or bad we are men of a _____ ______"
What is irrational to suppose?
irrational to suppose that a man who acts unjustly does not wish to be unjust or a man who acts self-indulgently to be self-indulgent
Aristotle uses an analogy of a man who visits a doctor to discuss the nature of an unjust person. What is Aristotle's point?
an unjust person becomes unjust voluntarily, by not doing anything to avoid becoming unjust, but once he becomes unjust he cannot avoid being unjust
Be able to summarize in your words, clearly and succinctly, the connections Aristotle makes between happiness, the divine, contemplation, and reason.
Happiness is an activity that results in the best in us. The divine is that thing that is the best in us. Contemplation is what we are able to use to analyze happiness. Reason is what causes us to see what is the best in us.
"If reason is divine," then...
the life according to it is divine in comparison with human life.
How does Gombrich characterize the Hebrews as a military force?
The Hebrews were small and defenseless. The Egyptians and the Babylonians invaded and they were constantly driven from one place to another. They tried to build fortresses, but they were still too weak. Even so, they made history.
In terms of religion, how were the Hebrews different from all other groups?
The Hebrews only prayed to the one true God. They praised Him and believed that He created everything and that He was their God. They created no image of their God; He was only represented in the 10 Commandments. Disasters made them more devout. They observed God's laws and lived to please Him even though He was invisible.
How influential was Hebrew language on modern English?
hardly anything compared to the Greeks; we use the Hebrew words Amen, Hallelujah/Alleluia, and Hosanna in certain contexts, and we rarely use the Hebrew words Leviathan and behemoth, but that's it!
What are the prominent Hebrew monuments?
What is prominent Hebrew art?
no non-literary art; tremendous lasting influence from literary art
Describe the Hebrew's military power.
What was quite unusual about the Hebrew's religion?
they practiced monotheism (one God)
[Greek: monos + theos = monotheism]
made no images of their God
What was the Hebrew theory of government?
none; they were often under the power of other groups
What was the Hebrew's systematic ethical system?
none; but they were very interested in practical wisdom like that found in Proverbs
What was Hebrew theology like?
they were very interested in theology, but they had no elaborate, systematic theology
Why were the Hebrew heroes so unique?
they were unexpected and unlikely, where most heroes were big and strong
Who were some Hebrew heroes?
David, Jesus, John the Baptist, Samson
What do prophets do?
foretell the future and bring messages from God, often to powerful people
How much influence did the Hebrews have in our world?
A LOT. WHICH IS TOTALLY UNEXPECTED.
How self-critical were the Hebrews?
very much so, and that was unusual; one legacy of the Hebrews is the way we constantly criticize ourselves, our history, our laws, etc.
Why was Jonah a bad prophet?
-he went the opposite direction God told him to go
-during the storm, he did not call out to God when the pagans asked him to
-he told the pagans he was a Hebrew and feared God, and his words were not congruent with his actions
-wanted to die
-was made happy by dumb things like shade
Why were the pagans and the people of Nineveh better than Jonah?
they cried out to God and followed God as soon as they saw His works and heard His word; JONAH DID NOT
What is the main theme of Jonah's story?
we should love everyone, because God loves everyone
What other lessons do we learn?
God can use even the most unlikely people for heroes; sometimes non-believers are more impressive than us
How does Gombrich characterize the Romans?
They were a peasant tribe, a proud people, full of stories about their glorious past. The hierarchy went from consuls to partricians to plebians. Power was in the hands of the nobility.
How were they different from the Athenians?
The Romans were not as quick-thinking or inventive as the Athenians and did not take the time to appreciate beautiful things or reflect on life. They were not restless seafarers like the Athenians, but a determined people who glorified their homes. They didn't travel or found colonies and were willing to die for their home cities.
How does Gombrich characterize the Roman commitment to law?
They were incredibly committed to their law, and inscribed their laws on 12 bronze tablets set out in the marketplace. The laws were simple and stern and held no exceptions or compassion. Because they were the laws of the ancestors, the Romans believed them to be true.
What is the origin of the term "Pyrrhic victory?"
A "Pyrrhic victory" is one that has been won at too great a cost, which was the nature of Pyrrhus's victory with Italy over the Roman legions. Pyrrhus and the Italian city defeated the Romans, but lost so many men that Pyrrhus believed another such victory would mean they were lost.
What characterized the Roman way of thinking?
law, order, practicality, stability; the Romans were practical (engineers, not philosophers)
How did the Greeks influence the Romans?
-Greeks influenced the Romans who influenced us
-some great Roman ruins remind us of Greek ruins
-great Roman poetry was influenced by great Greek poetry
What is the Latin word for law?
lex, legis (like legislate)
How were the Romans also a corrupt people?
they were frivolous and addicted to entertainment
Why is the Roman empire important to the Bible?
Jesus was born into the Roman empire; the early Christian church began in Rome
Of all the major empires of the world, which was the biggest?
Of all the major empires of the world, which was the longest-lasting?
What is the origin of the phrase, "the sun is always shining on the British empire"?
no matter what time of day or year, some part of the British empire was always in the sunlight
Why was the British empire such a huge achievement?
the mother country, Britain, is very small, but the empire was huge and spread over the world
How did Britain consider their modern empire?
they looked back at what made their past empire great
Kelly writes that phenomena associated with the Roman Empire have figured into the self-reflections/national aspirations of what modern nations?
Britain (imperialism of India), Germany (restructuring of public architecture), Italy (Mussolini's dream of a Roman Italy)
Who was Mussolini?
ruled the Italian empire (1935-1940)
Who did Mussolini model his Italian empire after?
the Roman empire
Who was Napoleon?
a French empire-builder
Who did Napoleon model his empire after?
Who was Charlemagne?
an empire builder in the 8th century
Who did Charlemagne model his empire after?
the Roman empire
What do these facts imply about the Roman empire?
it has had an enduring historical legacy
What similarities exist between America and the Roman empire?
American state and power and upsurge is similar to that of the Roman empire; some believe we are reliving the history of Rome; human nature is basically the same
What is fasces?
a Roman symbol for political authority present in the House of Representatives; portrays a sense of connection between American politics and Roman politics
How does the Supreme Court compare to the Romans?
it looks similar to the Greek Parthenon, which was taken over and built up by the Romans
How does the Lincoln Memorial compare to the Romans?
it looks similar to a Roman monument in Nimes, Franes
To where do we trace our conception of a "Senate"?
How is the New Testament helpful in a western civ class?
it gives us historical information about the Roman Empire
When was Alexander the Great's empire?
c. 320 BC
When was the Roman empire?
c. 120 BC
Which empire was more expansive?
Why were many Roman documents written in Greek?
Greek was spread throughout Alexander the Great's empire; Romans picked up their empire where the Greeks left off
How did the Greeks affect the Romans?
Greek legacy endures in Roman civilization
How did the British leave a legacy on us?
we still speak English
How did the emperor Hadrian show respect for ancient Greece while also promoting Rome's superiority to it?
Hadrian attacked Greece with careful planning, but he loved Greek culture. He made a new library that was an unmistakable proclamation of Roman wealth and power. He made one of the largest temples to Zeus, a Greek God, but with a statue that was a symbol of Athenian independence. He arranged Panhellenion, an organization of Greek cities that had an international federation and a close connection with old Greece. It linked many cities, re-shaped the Greek world, and contained new festivals. He made Athens an unchallenged capitol using Roman leadership.
What did the library of Hadrian represent?
it was built in Athens and respected Athenian culture while also showing Roman superiority
How did the Romans display conquest?
they had to go to war to expand their empire, and they built their empire by using violence against native tribes
How did the Romans also display peace?
once their conquest was achieved, their rule over the empire was light, and they forced the tribes to stop fighting each other and therefore brought order, stability, and peace
What does Pax Romana mean?
the Roman peace
How did the Romans bring their culture with them as they expanded their empire?
they brought images of their homeland, like columns (which were actually adapted from the Greeks); ruins of Roman columns can be found in France, Nigeria, Syria, and England
What are 2 examples of Romans' brilliant engineering?
-built a road system
-built Hadrian's wall across England
How did the Romans display dominance?
the Romans were brutal in the face of opposition; they fought to assert their power over people
What happened at Masada?
sicarri, a Jewish hit-squad, seized Masada, a well-defended fortress in Judea, from its Roman garrison; Romans raised siege-works against the fortress, making Jewish rebellion impossible; most of the people in the sicarri killed themselves
What does Roman action at Masada suggest about the Romans' psychology?
Romans terrified the people of Masada with their giant siege works, and this psychology of fear was made so intense that the people killed themselves, making it easy, then, for the Romans to lay siege
What was the reason for the Romans' actions at Masada?
when the Jews (Sicarri) rebelled against Roman rule, the Romans didn't just surround Masada and starve the people out; instead they built a huge ramp (which is obviously the more difficult option), just because they wanted to assert their power and show it to the whole empire so no one else would want to revolt
How did the Romans also display resourcefulness?
the Romans were not reckless, and didn't go for victory at any cost; they built Hadrian's wall
What was the purpose of Hadrian's wall?
it stretched across England to keep Scotland away from the Roman empire so the Romans wouldn't have to waste resources to fight Scotland
What respect did the Romans have for local culture?
they didn't care what gods the people worshiped and preserved their languages, and even adopted some of the local gods; Ephesus was part of the Roman empire for a long time, but the people were still close to their traditional Greek gods
How did the Romans also assert imperial culture?
they wanted to unify the entire empire through worship of the emperor; everyone had to pledge allegiance to the emperor
What example of local culture is found in Luke 1:5?
Herod, the king of Judea, was a local rule
What example of imperial culture is found in Luke 2:1?
Caesar Augustus was a Roman ruler who issued a decree that everyone must be registered
How did the exercise of imperial power impose its own constraints?
to keep peace, you had to be ready for war (short-term violence, long-term peace)
How is the Romans' light rule illustrated in Matthew 8:5?
the Roman centurion, a soldier in charge of 100 men and a symbol of Roman rule, is only mentioned in passing
How is Roman dominance illustrated in Matthew 5:41?
the Romans could force people to carry their stuff for a mile; Jesus says to go 2 miles and help the conquerer
How does Kelly describe a good emperor?
liberality (giving), moderation, clemency (willingness to pardon)
Why were the Romans so appalled that Jesus called Himself the King of the Jews?
they believed the Roman emperor was the king of the Jews
How is Roman clemency illustrated in Matthew 27:11-26?
Pilate, the Roman governor, is not eager to crucify Jesus; he doesn't want to kill him unless he has evidence and justification for it; he offers the pardon of 1 prisoner, and he lets the people decide which prisoner to release
How is the Romans' iron fist illustrated in Matthew 27:11-26?
Pilate has the power to decide Jesus' fate; Pilate controls the prisoners
How is Roman peace illustrated in Matthew 27:11-26?
Pilate washes his hands of Jesus' blood and hands him over to be crucified after a riot breaks out among the people; he sees the riot as a threat to the whole Roman empire, and he wants to end it to make sure peace will ensue
How does Kelly describe the control of the Romans?
Roman rulers were reactive, not proactive; they did not mess with the internal affairs of cities, and the Roman empire was not over-governed
How is local authority versus imperial control illustrated in Luke 23:4-7?
the Roman governor, PIlate, handed Jesus off to a local ruler, Herod, because if the locals can handle it, let them do it!
Was Jesus' age at his death significant to the people of the time?
no; he died at age 30, which was not young to the Romans
How did the Romans interpret Mark 10:13-16 when Jesus calls the little children?
who knows, because the Romans knew that little children were likely to die in a couple years
How did the Romans interpret John 8:57 when the age 50 is compared to how long ago Abraham lived?
they viewed 50 as being REALLY OLD, so maybe this is just an exaggeration used for emphasis?
In the second century BC, Rome's primary opponent was rooted in the North African city of...
What happened at Cannae?
The Romans were nearly wiped out at Cannae in Apulia by the Carthaginian general Hannibal, their harshest defeat. They lost 50,000 men in hand-to-hand combat, the largest death toll for an army in one day of war in the history of Europe.
Kelly writes that the Romans tended to avoid pitched battles, often relying instead on what tactic against Hannibal?
burned their own crops and retreated to fortified towns
What was the "true test of a great man"?
not his ability to achieve high office, but his willingness to surrender high office
What did Julius Caesar do that was unusual?
refused to stand down, as the constitution required him to do, after he completed his tour of duty in Gaul
How did Roman politics change once Rome came to be ruled by emperors?
Rome was dominated by privileged families who competed for the spoils of the empire
What were the characteristics of the militarized Roman state?
greater than any of its opponents, depended on its Italian allies and 13% of adult male citizens, had rigorous discipline, superior quality of weapons, campaign experiences; success and riches to follow, turned Rome into an imperial superpower
How does Kelly describe Julius Caesar's celebrations?
he exhibited captives and exotic animals, naval battle reenactments, prisoners fighting and killing reenactments, painted scenes of the victory
What were the "universal" themes of Roman conquest?
inevitability of Roman supremacy, futility of resistance, routine violence that accompanies the acquisition of new territories
What points does Kelly make about the worship of the god Artemis in the city of Ephesus?
the temple of Artemis in Ephesus was one of the 7 wonders of the world and one of the richest shrines in the eastern Mediterranean; Ephesus was famous for its worship of Artemis and had 9 statues of her in a public parade
How did the Ephesians show their loyalty to Rome while also holding to their local culture?
in their procession, the Ephesians honored their 2 founders, Androclus and Lysimachus, with silver images, and their protecting deity, Artemis; they also included personifications of the Roman Senate, the Roman People, and the emperor Trojan in the same processional change
What purpose did emperor worship serve in the empire?
it connected individuals to a single imperial centre and integrated traditional gods and old beliefs with comprehending absolute power; it also reinforced the recognition of superiority while allowing the people to parade their membership of a worldwide imperial society
What, for Pliny, were the emperor Trojan's "cardial virtues"?
clemency (compassion and mercy), simplicity (sincerity), piety (reverence for God), liberality (generous), accessibility (easy to approach)
How did Suetonius describe Augustus?
Augustus restored the prestige of the Senate, showed admirable self-restraint in his private life, used meek furniture, and ate simple foods
What criticisms did Suetonius make of the emperors Caligula and Nero?
Caligula sought public popularity (threatening the proper order), was obsessed with horses, was indecent, and had unhealthily extravagant habits and a sexual life; Nero desired land and luxurious possessions, disregarded having a regulated society, cared more about appeal of people than support in Senate, and was obsessed with public pasttimes
What criticisms did Tacitus make of Nero and the empire during Nero's reign?
Rome was dark, out of order, and unpredictable under Nero; his political world was a stage where everyone performed under his script; his autocracy was devastating, and there's no way to escape the demanding regime
To what extent can it be said that government at Rome micromanaged the affairs of distant cities in the empire?
Roman government not concerned with the internal affairs of the cities in their provinces, reacted to problems only when necessary, had few subordinates and bureaucrats, and overall had little to no role in the affairs of any of the cities
What did Aristides appreciate about Rome's style of governance?
liked their lack of interest in regulating the communities' affairs, few imperial officials, small military in peaceful areas, and the overal feel of 'a commonwealth of independent cities'
Why were collectors of tribute likely to be disliked by locals?
they could shift the burden of payment by a low valuation on their property, demanding other people's taxes early, and paying their own taxes late
What general benefit did Roman citizenship bring?
citizens gained access to the protection of Roman law and possibly a high-ranking position in the imperial administration or army
How does Kelly characterize the relationship between local rulers and Roman rulers?
local rulers adopted much of Roman habits because they were maintaining local traditions; Roman empire relied on the local rulers interests' meshing with theirs, to both of their advantage; unified imperial culture would not have been so swift and successful without force, though
What meesage were the "houses of the elite" designed to convey?
designed to be showy stage-sets the owners used to put themselves on controlled public display to a select audience, which gave a message of trying to be better than everyone else
life expectancies for infants/typical life expectancy in Roman empire
20-30 years; only half of all babies survived to age 5; those who do may live for another 40 years
reasons for the low life expectancy in Roman empire
ever-present diseases (dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid, malaria, pneumonia, tuberculosis); poor nutrition, poor hygiene, cramped urban population, no strict quarantine
Emperor Marcus Aurelius wrote as if a lifetime of _________ was sufficient to understand "eternity"
How did most Romans make their living?
worked the land, which was the main source of subsistence and the principal index of wealth
What sort of human activity, in addition to natural problems, made the lives of farmers more difficult?
suffered from drought, disease, and debt; moved from being farmers to being tenants or landless laborers; sometimes they joined the army
On whom did most of the wealth of the Empire depend?
those who labored in the countryside
In what context were Christians "part of the entertainment" in the city of Lugdunum?
tortured in an ampitheater in front of a huge crowd, torture including whips, wild animals, and heated iron chairs, for the purpose of entertaining the people
What class of people comprised the majority of the spectators of this event?
decent, law-abiding people, including the wealthy class
How does Kelly characterize the opening of the Colosseum?
it was celebrated by 100 days of games, gladiatorial fights and slaughter of wild animals, and the emperor throwing small wooden balls into the crowd that meant winning prizes
Kelly discusses the significance and meaning of the amiptheaters and gladiatorial games. In your own words, summarize the point he makes
games celebrated both order and violence; gave people a sense of dominance and control, to make them feel powerful and safe; accepted the violence as inevitable; respected the fearful power of their emperors; tricked themselves into thinking they could conquer the world because they won ever war they waged in their ampitheaters; could feel like war heroes without leaving their homes
In what way was Christian martyrdom "distinct"?
sought in front of an unbelieving and hostile crowd, happened in the most important public place, intersected directly with the compression of violence and order
Why did the Christians consider death in an ampitheatre a "triumph"?
dramatic public act of defiance, an affirmation of faith, demonstration of contempt for Roman order
How, generally, did Romans see Christians?
regarded Christians as a laughable and easily expendable group
What allegations against Christians did Minucius Felix make?
abused them by accusing them of bizarre, inhuman, or antisocial practices like using secret signs, worshiping donkeys, and initiating newcomers by tricking them into killing infants covered with dough and eating them
What were Christians accused of, and why did they seem like antisocial traitors?
accused of bizarre, inhuman, or antisocial practices; not usually sought out, but sometimes abused, executed, or ignored; sometimes seemed like antisocial traitors because they refused to recognize the emperor and the earthly empire and clung only to God; noisily attracted attention to themselves
What advice related to the Christians did Trajan give?
he told Pliny to stop seeking out Christians because they were not to be sought out, but to be given every chance to renounce their faith; those who recanted were to be pardoned, and no anonymous accusations were to be entertained
Which Roman emperor claimed to have become a Christian, and in what year?
What was the purpose of the Nicene Creed, and in what year was it written?
in June 325, the Nicene Creed was drafted as the basic formula which modern Christians of all major denominations continue to use in expression and affirming their faith
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