Natural Disasters (Chapter 1)

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A loss of life, injury, or property damage as a result of a natural event or process, usually within a local geographic area is a _______.
Natural disasters
Natural ________ are responsible for:
1. large and destructive forces that devastate the Earth
2. Killing millions of people and destroy cities
3. Cannot be predicted
Disasters
What is an event that could have a negative impact on people and their property, resulting from natural processes in the Earth's environment?
Natural Hazard
Earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunami, floods, volcanic eruptions, droughts, landslides, and coastal erosion are all what type of events?
Natural Hazards
Avalances and landlslides all take effect because of what?
The weather
Earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions all take effect because of what?
Plate tectonics
Hurricanes, typhoons, tornadoes, and wildfires all take effect because of what?
The weather
What is considered a massive disaster often affecting a larger region and requiring significant amounts of time and money for recovery?
A natural catastrophe
Industriral mishap, famine, major population displacement, and wildfires are disasters with what type of involvement?
Human involvement
What are the 4 spheres that make up the Earth?
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
Geosphere
Biosphere
Earth is a system driven by how many sources of energy?
Two
Geophysical contains earthquakes, volcanoes and what else?
Tsunamis
What are the measures taken to reduce adverse impact on humans or the environment?
Mitigation
What make up the 3 steps for natural hazards?
1. Preparation
2. Mitigation
3. Prevention
What type of hazard develops with little warning and strikes rapidly? It also expands their energy very quickly and usually comes around with no warning.
Rapid-onset hazard
___-onset hazards expand their energy very quickly, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, landslides, thunderstorms, and lightning.
Rapid
What type of hazard takes years to develop such as drought, insect infestations, disease epidemics, and global warming and climate change?
Slow-onset hazard
Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, land subsidence, tsunamis, coastal erosion, and floods are all what type of hazards?

A. atmospheric
B. geological
C. environmental
Geological
Global warming, tropical cyclones, storms, torandoes, droughts, lightning, and blizzards are all what type of hazards?

A. atmospheric
B. geological
c. environmental
Atmospheric
Wildfires, biolgoical diseases, insect infestations, environmental pollution are all what type of hazards?
Environmental
_____ hazards are caused by humans, but they affect our environment and ecosystem, which eventually affect us in the long run.
Anthropogenic
Pollution, deforestation lead to global warming because of ____ hazards.
Anthropogenic
Landslides, earthquakes, heatwaves hurricanes, tornadoes, hurricanes, volcanic eruption, and forest/wild fires impact who?
North America
What type of weather events such as tornadoes, hurricanes, storms, and heat waves strike many areas of the United States?
Severe weather events
What are more common in the United States than anywhere else in the world?
Tornadoes
How many tornadoes happen on average nationwide?
1,000
Hurricanes and tornadoes are examples of what?

A. rapid-onset hazards
B. slow-onset hazards
Rapid-onset hazards
Heat waves and drought are examples of what?

A. rapid-onset hazards
B. slow-onset hazards
Slow-onset hazards
Wild fires are also known as what?
Wildland fires
On average, how many acres do wildfires burn in the United States annually?
4.3 million acres
How much money does the United States spend on putting down wildfires annually?
$1 billion
What usually occurs in dry climate, Western US, and wetter regions?
Wildfires
What is a complex, slow-onset, nonstructural-impact natural hazard that affects people in the United States than any other hazard?
Droughts
Each year, the United States experiences how many earthquakes?
Thousands
An average of how many earthquakes with a magnitude of 6.0 or greater occur about each year?
7
What is the nation's most significant natural hazard threat?
Earthquakes
What was the last major earthquake to strike a large urban area?
Northridge, CA
What country is among the MOST volcanically active in the world with about 170 or more active/dormant volcanoes?
The United States
During the past century, volcanoes have erupted where? (Hint: WACOH)
1. Washington
2. Alaska
3. California
4. Oregon
5. Hawaii
What are the most frequent natural disasters in the United States?
Floods
What are the top 3 things that cause floods? 1. Hurricanes
2. Weather system
and what else?
3. Snowmelt
Nearly ___% of federal disaster declarations are related to flooding.
75%
Landslides can occur in how many states?
All 50 states.
Severe storms, earthquakes, volvanic activity, coastal wave attacks, and wildfires can cause what?
Landslides
The May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens cause the largest what in history?
Largest landslide in history.
What are the two sources of energy?
1. Solar ____
2. ____'s interior
1. Solar radiation/ solar energy / sun's energy
2. Earth's interior
The West Nile Virus epidemic of 2002 demonstrates how outbreakes can become a public health _____.
emergency
Human population has grown due to better shelter, food, and ____ supplies.
water
The increase in our world population by over ___ billion people during the past ____ years is without precedent in human history.
1. 5
2. 200
____ growth in world population reached the world's first billion by the early 1800s.
Exponential
It is estimated that the world population will reach __ to ___ billion by 2050.
1. 9
2. 10
The rapid increase in human population is causing serious ___ of resources, including oil, ____, and water.
1. shortages
2. food
What shape has our human population curved?
The letter J
Some scientists suggest that the present population is already above our planet's ____ capacity.
carrying
Our carrying capacity is the ____ number of people that the Earth can hold without casuing enivornmental degradation that reduces the ability of the planet to support the population.
maxinum
One of the obvious ways to reduce natural disasters and catastrophes would be ____ control.
population
The growth rate is ____% per year, meaning ____ billion by the year 2050.
1. 1.2%
2. 9.5
The poorer, underdeveloped countries suffer ____ numbers of deaths, whereas ____ countries suffer greater economic _____.
1. increasing
2. developed
3. losses
In ____ countries, the numbers of deaths has not increased due to better prediction, forecasting, and warning systems; as well as safer buildings.
developed
Natural ____ not only affect humans, but also affect and shapre the environment and biodiversity.
hazards
What two continents constantly have population growth?
1. North America
2. Europe
Are the Earth's resources infinite or finite?
Finite
Are the Earth's solutions temporary or permanent?
temporary
What are the two most frequent mega-killers?
Earthquakes and hurricanes.
Where do the most frequent mega-killers occur?
Mostly through Asia, along the Indian Ocean too.
Where were the most expensive events caused by storms?
1. United States
2. Europe
3. Japan
What year had one of the deadliest natural disaster cases?
2010
Humans are increasingly becoming more ____ to the natural hazards.
vulnerable
Natural hazards are not classified as natural disasters or catastrphe unless people or their properties are ___.
affected
Earth system ____ is the study of our planet as a system composed of numerous interconnecting subsystems governed by natural ____.
1. science
2. laws
A system in which no matter or ____ can leave or enter from the outside is known to be a ___ system.
1. energy
2. closed
The state in which the action of ____ forces produces a steady balance and resulting in no change over time is known to be _____ ______.
1. multiple
2. dynamic equilibrium
What is the occurrence of specific events?
frequency
What is used in interpreting the past record of ___ to predict occurrences of that event in the ____?
1. events
2. future.
3. frequency
What is a relative time scale based upon fossil content?
Geologic time scale
Geological time is divided into ____, eras, periods, and ____.
1. eons
2. epochs
How many billion years has Earth been here for?
4-6 billion
What is based on logical analysis of collected data and observations to solve problems?
scientific method
What is a tentative explanation to explain tha cause or why, of the phenomeon being studied?
hypothesis
If a hypothesis continues to be supported by continued testing over a long period of time, it becomes known as what?
theory
Continued testing of a theory that is irrefutably correct leads to the statement of a ____ or _____.
1. law
2. principle
Knowledge of how hazards ____ is the first step in understanding how to reduce impacts to humans and its environment.
operate
It is important to understand an area's history of hazard events and the _____ of the events.
severity
What is it called when you can identify when and where hazardous events occurred in the past and how they affected the area?
Hazard assessment
The size or ____ of an event is called _____.
1. scale
2. magnitude
The ____ Interval is how frequently, on average, a hazard event of a certain magnitude occurs.
Recurrence
A ____ assessment tells us something about the loss expected from each hazard.
risk
The greater the hazard, the ____ its recurrence interval.
shorter
___ communication includes raising public awareness and itstgating behavorial change in the areas of mitigation and preparedness.
risk
___ are sustained actions taken to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk to human life and property from hazards based on hazard identification and risk assessment.
Mitigation
___ methods of mitigation include building codes that specify materals, construction techniques that minimize damage to structures during a hazard event.
Structural
____ methods include restrictive zoning, relocation, and land abandonment.
Nonstructural
Hazard ___ activities include evactuation, damage assessment, public health risk assessment, search and rescue, fire suppression, flood control, and emergency medical response.
response
The primary goal of the recovery phase is to restore an area affected by a disaster to its ___-disaster condition.
pre
Prevention planning or community preparedness has been ___ funded and has not been a major policy priority.
poorly