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Organic Chemistry Chapter 2
Terms in this set (46)
Acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
The equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with water to generate H3O+.
dissociates in water to form H3O+
dissociates in water to form OH-
electron pair acceptor (electrophile)
electron pair donator (nucleophile)
The acid that results from protonation of a base.
The base that results from the loss of a proton from an acid.
Bonding that occurs by the sharing of electrons in the region between two nuclei.
A method of drawing curved arrows to keep track of electron movement from nucleophile to electrophile (or within a molecule) during the course of a reaction.
Orbitals with identical energies.
A charge which is spread out over two or more atoms. We usually draw resonance forms to show how the charge can appear on each of the atoms sharing the charge.
A measure of the polarity of a bond (or a molecule), proportional to the product of the charge separation times the bond length.
The relative probability of finding an electron in a certain region of space.
A measure of an element's ability to attract electrons. Elements with higher amounts attract electrons more strongly.
An electron pair acceptor (Lewis acid).
Electrostatic potential map (EPM)
A computer-calculated molecular representation that uses colors to show the charge distribution in a molecule.
The ratios of atoms in a compound.
A method for keeping track of charges, showing what charge would be on an atom in a particular Lewis structure.
Electron donation or withdrawal through the sigma bonds of a molecule.
Bonding that occurs by the attraction of oppositely charged ions. This bonding usually results in the formation of large, three-dimensional crystal lattice.
Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons; atoms of the same element but with different atomic masses.
A structural formula that shows all valence electrons, with the bonds symbolized by dashes or by pairs of dots, and nonbonding electrons symbolized by dots.
A shorthand structural formula with bonds represented by lines.
A pair of nonbonding electrons
The number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a compound. The empirical formula simply gives the ratios of atoms of the different elements.
A region in an orbital with zero electron density.
A flat (planar) region of space with zero electron density.
Valence electrons that are not used for bonding.
An electron pair donor (Lewis base).
Atoms generally form bonding arrangements that give them filled shells of electrons (noble-gas configurations). For second row elements, this configuration has eight valence electrons.
An allowed energy state for an electron bound to a nucleus; the probability function that defines the distribution of electron density in space.
The chemistry of carbon compounds. The study of compounds derived from living organisms and their natural products.
A measure of acidity of a solution.
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally.
nonpolar covalent bond
A bond with equal sharing of electrons.
A molecule or ion in which two or more valid Lewis structures can be drawn, differing only in the placement of valence electrons.
A structure that shows all the atoms and bonds in the molecule.
The number of bonds an atom usually forms.
Those electrons that are in the outermost shell.
The belief that syntheses of organic compounds require the presence of a vital force.
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
States that we can never determine exactly where the electron is.
Pauli exclusion principle
States that up to two electrons can occupy each orbital if their spins are paired.
The principle of building up atoms in electron orbitals.
When there are two or more unfilled orbitals of the same energy (degenerate orbitals), the lowest energy configuration places the electrons in different orbitals (with parallel spins) rather than paired in the same orbital.
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