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stats first test
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Terms in this set (33)
singular form of data
datum
stats
the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing and interpreting data in order to make decisions.
population
the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest (each; sometimes the; every)
sample
a subset, or part, of the population. (sample; few; some; fraction)
parameter
a numerical description of a population characteristic
statistic
a numerical description of a sample characteristic
descriptive statistics
involves organizing, summarizing, and displaying data (tables, charts, averages)
inferential statistics
involves using sample data to draw conclusions about a population; future or making a prediction is inferential
qualitative data
consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries
quantitative data
numerical measurements or counts
nominal level of measurement
-qualitative data only
-data can be put into categories using names, labels or qualities
-NOminal = NO math
ordinal level of measurement
-qualitative or quantitative data
-data can be put into categories AND arranged in order
-example: movie ratings
interval level of measurement
-quantitative data
-TIME AND TEMP ARE ALWAYS INTERVAL
-data can be put into categories AND arranged in order AND subtract data values
ration level of measurement
-data can be put into categories AND arranged in order AND subtract data values AND determine whether one data value is a multiple of another
- zero entry is an inherent zero (implies "none")
designing a statistical study steps
1. collect the data
2. describe the data
3. interpret the data and make decisions about the population using inferential statistics
4. identify any possible errors
observational study
a researcher observes and measures characteristics of interest of part of a population but does NOTHING but observe
experiment
a treatment is applied to part of a population and responses are observed
simulation
using mathematical or physical model to reproduce the conditions of a situation or process
survey
an investigation of one or more characteristics of a population
key elements of an experimental design
-control
-randomization
-sample size
-replication
placebo effect
a subject reacts favorably to a placebo when in fact he/she hasn't been given a medical treatment at all
double blinding (for placebo)
the subject nor the experimenter knows
randomization
a process of randomly assuaging subjects to different treatment groups
randomized block design
divide subjects with similar characteristics into blocks, and then within each block, randomly assign subjects to treatment groups
matched pairs design
subjects are paired up according to a similarity. one subject in the pair is randomly selected to receive one treatment while the other subject receives a different treatment
sample size
the number of subjects in a study is very important to experimental design
replication
the repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects
simple random sample (SRS)
every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being selected
stratified sample
divide a population into groups and select a random sample from each group
cluster sample
divide the population into groups aka clusters and select all of the members in one or more, but not all, of the clusters
-both of these guarantee that all parts of the population are chose
systematic sample
choose a starting value at random the choose every Kth member of the population
-you might miss a group
convenience sample
choose only members of the population that are easy to get
-often leads to a biased study
RANDOM NUMBER GENERATING STEPS ON CALC
1. scratchpad
2. calc
3. menu
4. 5 then 4 then 2(integer)
5. random integer
6. example: (1, 85, 5)
1 is starting point, 85 is ending point, and 5 is the amount of numbers that need to be generated
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