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Terms in this set (35)
False Dilemma [Hobson's Choice]
The arguer claims that there are only two options and one is unacceptable so we must accept the other. However, in actuality there are other alternatives.
The arguer makes their own position appear stronger by misrepresenting their opponent's position.
The arguer states that given a series of cases and given that the differences between each case is insignificant, the difference between any two of them is insignificant.
Any argument that draws a generalization based on a small or unrepresentative sample size
When a general rule is inappropriate applied to a specific case
Missing the Point
When the premise or an argument supports a particular conclusion, but then a different, often vaguely related conclusion is drawn.
When the arguer chances the subject and goes down a different, often vaguely related conclusion is drawn.
Affirming the Consequent
Any argument with the invalid structure of: If A then B. B therefore A
Denying the Antecedent
Any argument with the invalid structure: If A then B. Not A, therefore B.
The arguer supports the conclusion simply by their conclusion as a premise
Begging the Question
A complicated fallacy. An argument that begs the question and asks the reader to simply accept the conclusion without providing real evidence.
Appeal to Force/Fear
The arguer tries to get you to accept views on the grounds that you will be harmed if you don't. They use attempts to motivate you from fear rather than logically persuade you.
Appeal to Pity
The arguer tries to get you to accept their view on the grounds that they will be harmed if you don't.
The arguer uses biased language to support their views rather than offering evidence.
Faulty Appeal to Authority
The arguer appeals to an authority who's area of expetise is irrelevant to the issue at hand, or appeals to a person who is famous but not an expert.
Fallacy of Exclusion
Important evidence which would undermine an argument is excluded from consideration. The requirement that all relevant information be included.
A Confusion of Part and Whole: Because parts of a whole have certain property it is argued that the whole has that property.
A Confusion of Part and Whole: Because the whole has a certain property, it is argued that the parts have that property.
An argument directed against a person rather than the position they are maintaining
Ad Hominem: Attack
The arguer suggests that their opponent's view is unacceptable because of some negative character trait. Attack the person rather than the argument.
Ad Hominem: Circumstantial
The arguer suggests that their opponents view is false because the opponent has something personal to gain if it is accepted.
Tu Quoque [You Too] Ad Hominem
The arguer suggests that their opponent's position is inconsistent with their own beliefs or actions and therefore the position is false.
Guilt by Association
The arguer suggests their opponent's views should be rejected because the opponent is a member of a percieved disreputable group or the views of the opponent are also held by people seen as disreputable.
Appeal to Numbers/Popularity
The arguer appeals to the sheer number of persons who agree with the belief or the belief of evidence that is true.
Appeal to Vanity
Tying an idea to a popular person or value
Appeal to Snobbery
If you qualify as one of the select few.
Appeal to Ignorance
The arguer uses the fact that a proposition has not been disproven as evidence, so the proposition is true. Or, the proposition has not been proven, so it is not true.
Appeal to Tradition
The arguer bases the acceptance of a position on the mere fact that they have always believed it or has been always accepted as true.
Two Wrongs Make A Right
The arguer appeals to consistency stating that a wrong action/belief should be accepted on the basis that another similar wrong action/belief was accepted.
Argument based on an unqualified generalization
Comparing situations that are different
Hypothesis Contrary to the Fact
Draws conclusions from a hypothesis that's not true
Definition too broad
The definition includes items that should not be included
Definition too narrow
The definition includes items which should not be included
Two otherwise unrelated points are illegitimately conjoined and treated as a single proposition. The reader is expected to accept or reject both together, when in reality they should be considered separately
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