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Exam 1 - Lecture 1 Histology:Background and History
Terms in this set (10)
Know the general subject matter of histology
• ίστόϛ (histos): "tissue" + λογία (logia): "science"
• Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.
• Histopathology is "The science or study dealing with the cytologic and histologic structure of abnormal or diseased tissue."
You should be able to recognize a given tissue and classify it into one of four general categories
Four basic types of tissues:
• Epithelial tissues
• Connective tissues
• Muscle tissues
• Nervous tissues
Epithelial Tissue Slide: Simple Columnar
Epithelial Tissue Slide: Simple Cuboidal
Epithelial Tissue Slide: Simple Squamous
Epithelial Tissue Slide: Transitional (Urothelium)
Epithelial Tissue Slide: Pseudostratified
Know the contributions of Bichat to the field of histology
Marie Francois Xavier Bichat
• Main contribution was perception that the diverse body organs contain particular tissues or membranes; he described 21 such membranes.
• Major works were Treatise on Membranes (1799), Physiological Researches on life and death (1800), and General Anatomy (1801).
• Did not use a microscope (distrusted it) but described 21 membranes ("tissues") that combine in different ways to form the organs of the body.
• Saw life as divided into two parts: the organic (vegetative) life and the animal life:
• Organic life was the life of the heart, intestines, and other organs.
• Organic life was regulated by a collection of small, independent, thoracic brains (ganglionic nervous system).
• Animal life was composed of symmetrical organs such as eyes, ears, and limbs.
• Animal life included habit and memory and was ruled by wit and intellect.
• Introduced notion of tissues as distinct entities and maintained that diseases attacked tissues rather than whole organs or the entire body.
Know the contributions of Virchow to the field of histology
• Pioneered concept of pathological processes through the application of the cell theory: Omnis cellulae e cellular.
• Part of the first paragraph of Virchow's first of twenty lectures delivered to the Pathological Institute of Berlin and later compiled into a single volume, Cellular Pathology.
• Virchow and the cell theory:
• The cell theory in the time of Virchow stated that all life forms are composed of cells and that all cells are derived from existing cells.
• Virchow realized early on that the part of the cell theory that required all cells to be derived from existing cells (omnis cellulae e cellulae) could give insight into pathological processes.
What contributions did Kolliker, Schleiden, and Schwann make to the field of microscopy
• 1838: Matthiew Schleiden; botanist; recognized that the cell is the essential unit of the living organism; erroneously developed the idea that cells arise by budding from the nucleus (free cell formation theory).
• 1839: Theodore Schwann; zoologist; compared animal cells to plant cells; observed cartilage and types of eggs; distinguished five classes of tissues.
• Note that Schleiden and Schwann are usually credited with the discovery that all living organisms are composed of cells.
• 1852: Albert Kolliker applied Schwann's theory to the embryonic development of animals and wrote the first textbook on histology; he also produced a model textbook for embryology.
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