BC Chapter One

The early students of anatomy and physiology
were most likely concerned with treating ___
and ____.
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Terms in this set (61)
____ are large, biologically important molecules inside cells.Macromolecules____ are aggregates of macromolecules used to carry out a specific function in the cell.Organelles___ are the basic living unit.Cells____ are groups of cells functioning together.tissuesGroups of tissues form _____organsGroups of organs function together as ______organ systemsOrgan systems functioning together make up an _____.organsimFundamental characteristics of life are traits shared by ____ organisms.allMovement(internal or gross)Responsiveness(reaction to internal or external change)Growth(increase in size without change in shape)Reproduction(new organisms or new cells)Respiration(use of oxygen; removal of CO2)Digestion(breakdown of food into simpler forms)Absorption(movement of substances through membranes and into fluids)Circulation(movement within body fluids)Assimilation(changing nutrients into chemically different forms)Excretion(removal of metabolic wastes)Taken together, these 10 characteristics constitute___.metabolismRequirements of Organisms:a. Water b. Food c. Oxygen d. Heat e. PressureBoth the ____ and ____ of these factors are important.-quality and quanityMaintenance of a stable internal environment is called ____. Homeostasis is regulated through control systems which have receptors, a set point and effectors in common. Examples include: a. Homeostatic mechanisms regulate body temperature in a manner similar to the functioning of a home heating thermostat. b. Another homeostatic mechanism employs pressure- sensitive receptors to regulate blood pressure.homeostasis.Homeostasis is regulated through control systems which have ____, a set point and ____ in common.-receptors -set point,effectorsMany of the body's homeostatic controls are negative ____ mechanisms.-feedbackEach individual uses homeostatic mechanisms to keep body levels within a ____; normal ranges can vary from one individual to the next.normal rangeMajor features of the human body include its _____, _____ and ____.cavities, membranes,organ systems.The body can be divided into an ___ portion (upper and lower limbs) and an___ portion (head, neck, and trunk), which includes a dorsal and a ventral cavity. Organs within these cavities are called___appendicular axial visceraThe dorsal cavity can be divided into two areas:- Cranial cavity -Vertebral canalThe ventral cavity is made up of the following:-Thoracic cavity -Abdominopelvic cavityThe mediastinum divides the and left halves.Thoracic cavityThe abdominopelvic cavity can be divided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.Abdominopelvic cavityA broad, thin muscle called the ____ separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.diaphragmSmaller cavities within the head include theoral cavity, nasal cavity, orbital cavities, and middle ear cavities.The ____ cavity is lined with____; the parietal pleura lines the cavities while the visceral pleura covers the lungs. A thin layer of serous fluid separates the two layers.-thoracic -pleural membranesThe ___ is surrounded by____. The parietal pericardium makes up an outer sac and the visceral pericardium covers the heart. Serous fluid separates the two layers.-heart -pericardial membranes____ line the ___; a parietal peritoneum lines the wall while visceral peritoneum covers the organs.-Peritoneal membranes -the abdominopelvic cavityThe ___, including skin, hair, ___, and various glands, covers the body, senses changes outside the body, and helps regulate _____.-integumentary system -nails -body temperatureThe _____ is made up of bones and ligaments. It supports, protects, provides frameworks, stores inorganic salts, and houses blood-forming tissues.skeletal systemThe_____ consists of the muscles that provide body movement, posture, and body heat.muscular systemThe ____consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs. It integrates incoming information from receptors and sends impulses to muscles and glands.nervous systemThe ___, including all of the glands that secrete hormones, helps to integrate metabolic functions.endocrine systemThe _____, made up of the heart and blood vessels, distributes oxygen and nutrients throughout the body while removing wastes from the cells.cardiovascular systemThe ___, consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen, drains excess tissue includes cells of immunity.lymphatic systemThe ___, consisting of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance.urinaryThe ___ is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs. It receives, breaks down, and absorbs nutrients.digestive systemThe ___ exchanges gases between the blood and air and is made up of the lungs and passageways.respitory systemThe ___ produces new organisms.reproductive systemTerms of relative position include: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial (peripheral), and deep.....A ___ divides the body into right and left portions.sagittal sectionA ____ divides the body into superior and inferior portions. It is often called a "cross section".transverse sectionA ___ divides the body into anterior and posterior sections.coronal section