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latin for "Middle Ages"

Middle Ages

the period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance

Dark Ages

the first part of the Middle Ages from 500 to 1000 C.E.; the period of european history from the fall of the roman empire to about the end of the tenth century.

Treaty of Verdun

843 Treaty that ended power struggle of Charlemagne's 3 sons after his death and split Franks into 3 kingdoms


course of academic studies


loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord

feudal contract

the exchange of pledges between a lord and his vassal.


lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord


land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service


a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord


A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.


Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages


mounted warrior of the Middle Ages


mock battles used as practice to keep knights ready for battle


the sacred rituals of the Church


office of the Pope


excommunication of an entire town, kingdom, or region

canon law

Church law


worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion


a wandering monk devoted to teaching and works of charity

three-field system

system of farming where the land is divided into 3 sections and one section is always left fallow


left unplowed and unseeded during a growing season


written document given by a king that set out the rights and privileges of the town in return for taxes


money or investment used to start a business


The practice of lending money for interest.


a medieval organization of people in the same craft or trade


King of Franks who converted to Christianity; ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy


nomadic Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary


Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia

Islamic Moors

Muslims who lived in Spain

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