30 terms

population

every member in a large group of data

sample

a small part of a population

survey

data ascertained from responses given by a sample of the population

biased sample

a sample that favors one group over another

random sample

a sample in which each member of the population has an equal probability of being chosen

stratified random sample

The population is first divided into similar, non-overlapping groups from which a random sample is selected

systematic random sample

a sample in which the items are selected according to specified time in or item interval

measures of central tendency

Numbers or pieces of data that represent the entire data set

quantitative data

Data that can be given and analyzed as numerical values

qualitative data

Data that cannot be given a numerical value

statistical inference

statistics of a sample are used to draw conclusions about the entire population

statistic

A measure that describes a characteristic of a sample

parameter

A measure that describes a characteristic of an entire population

mean absolute deviation

The average of the absolute values of the differences between the mean in each value in the data set

Standard deviation

A calculated value that shows how the data deviates from the mean of the data

variance

The square of the standard deviation

sample space

A list of all the items or objects in a group

permutation

A list of items or objects that are arranged so that order is important

factorial

n!=n•(n-1)•(n-2)•(n-3)•...•1, where n>_1. Also, 0! =1

observational study

Data ascertained from direct observation

experiment

Data ascertained after changing a variable in the sample

simple random sample

A sample that is equally likely to be chosen as any other sample from the population

univariate data

Data that involves only one variable

measures of variation

Numbers used to describe the distribution of statistical data

combination

A selection of objects in which order is not important

compound event

A combination of two or more simple events

independent events

when the out come of one event does not affect the outcome of the other

Dependent events

when the outcome of one event affects the outcome of another event

mutually exclusive events

events that cannot occur at the same time

conditional probability

The probability that event B occurs given that event A has already occurred