Baking 2 Test
Terms in this set (67)
Baking is one of the _______________ occupations of the human race.
_______________ have been the most important foods to sustain human life.
Wild Grass Seeds / Stones
The art of baking began thousands of years ago with the gathering of _______________ and
grinding of those seeds between _______________.
East or Mediterranean Region
Wild Grains grew abundantly in the _______________ or _______________ _______________.
After grinding the grains, meal, they were mixed with water to form a _______________.
Paste was laid on a rock near a fire, it would bake and turn into _______________.
_______________ - an elastic substance, formed from proteins present in wheat flours,
which gives structure and strength to baked goods.
_______________ - microscopic organisms that produce carbon dioxide gas
Egyptians/ Loaf Pans
The ancient _______________ developed the art of cooking leavened doughs in molds - the first __________ __________.
Breads made from _______________ flours were costly and affordable for only the richest people. Most people ate bread from _______________ and other grains.
Five or Six Hundred BC enclosed ovens began being used by the _______________.
_______________ - an early type of bread; cakes of grain paste baked by the ancient Greeks.
_______________ - in Greece, any food eaten with bread.
Writings from ancient Greece describes as many as _____ kinds of bread and other baked gain products were developed by professional bakers.
Baking Industry was not important in Rome until the form of the _______________ _______________.
_______________, the ancestors of modern French, had developed beer making.
This process was the beginning of the use of a _______________ yeast source for making bread doughs.
After the collapse of ______________________________, baking as a profession almost disappeared.
In much of Europe, tending ovens and making bread dough were______________________________.
_____ oven could serve the needs of several bakers.
_______________ Breads were more expensive then _______________ breads.
1650 CE bakers started buying sifted flour from _______________.
Bolting(sifting) yields/ bread ingredients/ loaf size
Because bread was the most important food of all time, many laws regulated such factors
such as ______________________________, ______________________________, and
It was also in the Middle Ages that Bakers and Pastry Chefs began to form_______________ in order to protect and further their art.
To become _______________ _______________, workers had to go through a course of apprenticeship and obtain a certificate stating they has gained the necessary skills.
Certified master chefs
______________________________ could then set up their own shops
Honey/ dried fruits
Bakers also made cakes from doughs or batters containing _______________ or other sweet ingredients, such as____________________.
Non-sweet pastry doughs were also used to make products like _______________.
In the __________, pastry chefs in France formed their own corporations and took pastry making away from bakers.
_______________ was the most important sweetener. To Europeans, sugar was a rare and expensive luxury item.
European arrival in the Americas in __________ sparked a revolution in pastry making.
Cocoa and chocolate
_______________ AND ______________________________, native to the New World, were available to the Old World for the first time.
18th century processors learned how to refine sugar from
______________________________, so at last Europeans could grow sugar locally.
An _______________, in order to serve a meal to guest, had to buy the various menu items from those guild operations that were licensed to provide them.
In 1765, a Persian named ______________________________, began advertising on his shop sign that he served soups, which he called restaurants or ______________________________.
__________ -Bread Baker
After the ______________________________, in 1789, many bakers and pastry cooks who had been servants in the houses of the nobility started independent businesses.
In the 18th Century the _______________ was invented.
______________________________, the most famous chef of the early 19th century, who lived from 1784-1833.
Chef de cuisine/ roatissieur/ patissier
Commercial Kitchens became divided into 3 departments: -
______________________________, ______________________________, and
Le patisserie royal
____________________, was one of the first systematic explanations of the pastry chef's art.
Recipes/ menu making/ cooking principles
His books contain the first systematic account of ______________________________, _______________, and______________________________.
______________________________- automated machine that separates the bran from the endosperm
New availability of flours were being made available from _______________ _______________.
Refrigeration/ ovens/ air transportation
In the Twentieth Century, advances in technology, from _______________-_______________, _______________, & ______________________________ contributed immensely to baking and pastry making.
_______________________made ingredients more affordable and available.
______________________- speeds up production of laminated doughs (Puff Pastry)
____________________- hold yeast doughs overnight and then proofs them so they are ready to bake in the morning
The most influential Chef of the twentieth century was ______________________________
(1897-1955). Point simplified and lightened classical cuisine.
______________________________- important cooking style of 1960s and 1970s, known for lighter flavors and elaborate plating styles.
______________________________- the use of techniques and ingredients from more than
one regional cuisine in a single dish.
Fine breads/ pastries
The popularity of _______________ and _______________ is growing faster than new
chefs can be trained.
Chef de cuisine
______________________- executive chef, oversees entire kitchen
_____________- assistant to the executive chef & directly in charge of the cooking
_______________ - pastry chef
Chef grande manger
_____________________- pantry chef
_______________ - sauces and sautéed items
_______________ - fish chef
_______________ - roast chef
___________ - executive pastry chef
_____________ - bread baker
______________ - ice cream maker
_______________ - confectioner or candy maker
_______________- decorator, makes showpieces, sugar work, and decorated cakes
_____________________________- in charge of retail bakery
Eagerness to work
Commitment to learn
Dedication to service
What does it take to be a good baker or pastry chef?