Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (19)
name the anatomical landmarks of the thoracic cage.
sternum, 12 ribs, diaphragm
ribs 1-7 attach to sternum and spine
8-10 attach to rib 7 via cartilage
11 and 12 are only attached to spine ("floating:)
name the anterior landmarks of the thorax/lungs.
angle of louis
name the posterior landmarks of the thorax/lungs.
vertebra prominens - C7.flex head; feel prominence.
inferior border of scapula (7-8th rib)
12th rib (b/t spine and persons side.)
name the reference lines. anterior, posterior, sides.
Anterior - midsternal, bilateral midclaviculars, anterior axillary (bilateral)
posterior - midspinal, bilateral scapular, posterior axillary (bilateral)
sides - midaxillary line( bilateral), anterior and posterior axillary
name the landmark in the thoracic cavity.
middle section. contains esophagus, heart, trachea, and great vessels. on either side lies the pleural cavities.
name the lung borders.
apex is highest point. base is lowest point.
anterior 1-1.5in above inner 3rd of clavicle (apex), 6th rib midclavicular is base.
laterally - base around 7 or 8th rib.
posterior - apex is at C7, base at T10. (on inspiration @ T12.)
How many lobes does each lung contain?
left lung - narrower, has 2 lobes; upper and lower. (due to heart)
right lung - shorter (due to liver). has 3 lobes; upper, middle, lower.
what are pleura?
there are two pleurae. it is the serous sac encasing each lung. it lies b/t lung and chest wall.
visceral - lines outside of lungs ( this is the inner layer of pleura)
parietal - lines chest wall and superior surface of diaphragm. (outer layer of pleura)
small amount of fluid b/t them that decreases friction.
explain function and anatomy of trachea and bronchial tree.
dead space; filled with air not available for gas exchange in the lungs. they transport gases TO lungs; the tree bifurcates just below sternal notch into right and left bronchi. the right is wider, shorter and more vertical than left.
the right mainstem bronchi is wider, shorter and more vertical than the left, what is the problem of this?
increased risk of aspiration on right side.
what is the acinus (acini) and what is its function?
it is a respiratory unit. consists of bronchioles, alveolar sacs and aveoli.
gas exchange occurs here.
what is the diaphragm?
around 5th and 6th space, liver is at 5th. respiration muscle. contracts when inspiration.
describe the intercostal muscles?
describe the accessory muscles.
-external; in intercostals spaces, active in inspiration, raises ribs
-internal; passive with expiration, draws adjacent ribs together.
-used when O2 demands are increased. helps lift the sternum and rib cage. muscles retract. muscles : scalene, sternomastoid, trapezious, abdominal rectus, and intercostals.
identify the flow of blood in the heart.
comes in from vena cava (inferior and superior), flows into right atria through the tricuspid valve into right ventricle, through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery into the lungs for oxygenation.
comes in from pulmonary vein into left atria through the mitral valve into left ventricle through the aortic valve (some flows through coronary sinuses to supply the coronary arteries; which supplies blood to the heart muscle itself), into the aorta and onwards to the body.
name the normal breath sounds and where to hear them
bronchial - heard on anterior. over trachea and larynx.
broncho-vesticular - heard over major bronchi:posterior, between scapula; anterior, around upper sternum in 1st and 2nd ICS
vesticular- heard on posterior; heard over peripheral lung fields where air flows thru smaller bronchioles and alveoli. best heard at base of lungs.
name the abnormal breath sounds
crackles (fine or coarse) usually heard in bases of lower lungs. the fine sounds like hair friction; coarse sounds like velcro
rhonchi- sounds like snoring
wheeze- squeaking (asthma)
pleural friction rub- continuous creaking
stridor - crowing sound. (gasping for air)
decreased - diminished sounds. restricted air flow
absent - no sound at all.
name the nutritional lab tests
hemoglobin - used to detect iron deficiency anemia. norms 14-18g/dl for males, 12-16 for females.
hematocrit- idicator of iron status. norms 37-49% males; 36-46% females
cholesterol - evals fat metabolism and assesses risk for CVD; norms 120-200mg/dl
trigylycerides - screens for hyperlipidemia. determines risk for CAD
norms 0-19y 10-100mg/dl
serum albumin - measurement of protein status
serum glucose - amt of glucose in blood, norms 70-90 fasting; 110-180 non fasting
urine glucose aka ketones
indirect indicator of serum glucose levels and fat breakdown
norms - NONE.
what are the fat soluble viatmins?
A- necessary for night vision, immunity, and repair of body tissues
D- absorption of calcium, phosphorus for bone health and teeth.
E- antioxidant, prevents breakdown of RBC (hemolysis) treat anemia.
K- blood clotting,
what are the water soluble vitamins?
Sets with similar terms
Unit IX: Cardiothoracic
Thorax Q & A
Nur 209 module 6 Respiratory
Block 1 Thorax