For Honors Anatomy & Physiology students at Christian Life School


The study of tissues


Groups of cells working together to perform a specific function.

General role for each Tissue

Epithelial: Covering
Connective: Support
Muscle: Movement
Nervous: Control

6 Functions of Epithelial Tissue

Sensory Reception

5 Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue and brief explanation

Polarity - has an apical and basal surface that help absorb, secrete, and filter
Specialized contacts - cells fit very close together
Supported by connective tissue
Avascular but Inervated - Does not have a blood supply but does have a nerve supply
Regeneration - has the ability to constantly replenish itself

Epithelial Cell Shapes and brief description

Squamous - Flattened and scalelike
Cuboidal - Boxlike; As wide as they are high
Columnar - Tall and pillar shaped

Epithelial Cell Layers and brief description

Simple - One single cell layer
Stratified - 2 or more cell layers

4 Functions of Connective Tissue

Binding and support

3 Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue and brief description

Common Origin - all connective tissues come from mesenchyme
Degrees of Vascularity - connective tissues vary in their blood supply...from cartilage which is avascular to blood which is very vascular
Extracellular Matrix - connective tissues contain a non-living substance that separates the cells

3 Connective Tissue Fibers


Collagen Fibers Info

Fibers are made from collagen
They are very tough and provide much tensile strength

Elastic Fibers Info

Fibers are made of elastin
Allow for stretch and recoil
Found in the skin, lungs, and blood vessel walls

Reticular Fibers Info

Short, fine fibers that are continuous with collagen fibers
They branch around blood vessels

4 Connective Tissue Cell Types and What Tissues They Make Up

Fibroblasts make up Connective Tissue Proper.
Chondroblasts make up Cartilage.
Osteoblasts help to create Bone.
Hematopoietic stem cells are the beginnings of Blood.

4 Major Types of Connective Tissues

Connective Tissue Proper

Hyaline Cartilage D, F, L

Description: Most abundant type of cartilage; known as gristle
Function: Gives much support and is very pliable
Location: Found at the ends of long bones, the tip of the nose, connects the ribs to the sternum, and supports the trachea

Elastic Cartilage D, F, L

Description: Cartilage that has more elastic fibers than anything
Function: Allows for much flexibility
Location: Found in the ear and epiglottis

Fibrocartilage D, F, L

Description: Made up of thick collagen fibers
Function: Absorbs compressive forces
Location: Found in the intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, and the menisci of the knees

Functions of Nervous Tissue

Regulate and control body functions
Generates and transmits nerve impulses

Skeletal Muscle Tissue Info

Where found: Found in the muscles that attach to bones
V/Involuntary: Voluntary

Cardiac Muscle Tissue Info

Where found: Found in the walls of the heart
V/Involuntary: Involuntary

Smooth Muscle Tissue Info

Where found: Found in the walls of hollow organs
V/Involuntary: Involuntary

2 Ways Tissue Repairs Occur

Regeneration - replaced destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue
Fibrosis - scar tissue is formed rather than the original tissue

Simple squamous epithelium

Simple cuboidal epithelium

Simple columnar epithelium

Pseudostratified epithelium

Stratified squamous epithelium

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

Stratified columnar epithelium

Transitional epithelium

Areolar connective tissue

Adipose connective tissue

Reticular connective tissue

Dense regular connective tissue

Dense irregular connective tissue

Hyaline Cartilage

Elastic Cartilage


Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Smooth Muscle Tissue

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

Nervous Tissue

3 Steps to Tissue Repair

Step 1: Inflammation sets the stage
Chemicals are released to cause capillaries to dilate. Clotting proteins and antibodies are plentiful and start to form a clot (this stops blood flow). Clot hardens if exposed to air and forms a scab. Excess fluid (which causes inflammation) and other cells are phagocytized.
Step 2: Organization restores the blood supply (this is the first step to tissue repair). Granulation tissue (pink tissue containing capillaries that have a granular appearance) is formed.
Step 3: Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair. Regeneration occurs under the scab. Epithelial tissue thickens and looks like normal skin.

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