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US AP History Period 1
Terms in this set (48)
How did early Americans reach North and South America?
They crossed a land bridge from Asia
When was the land bridge formed? What was it made of?
During the ice age, ice/land
What were the Indians doing when they crossed the land bridge?
Following food or herds
What were the most complex Indian communities?
Mayan, Inca and Aztecs
What did the cultivation of maize do?
Transform nomadic hunter-gather societies into settled farming communities
What kinds of items did Europeans desire from Persia and China?
Silk, Spices, Oils/Perfumes
What were the Spanish 3 motives for exploration?
Which direction did Portugal head to reach Asia and India?
South along the West coast of Africa.
Who married to make Spain whole?
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille
Where did Columbus land?
Columbus died thinking what?
That he had found a trade route to Asia and that he had landed on the outskirts of India
When Spain and Portugal went to the pope to see how to divide the world, the pope made what?
The Treaty of Tordesillas
What did the Treaty of Tordesillas say?
Divided the trade routes to Asia: Spain gets the route across the Atlantic and Portugal gets the route around Africa. Also, Spain got a lot of land in the New World and Portugal got present-day Brazil.
Who came to the New World once it was discovered?
Who conquered the Aztecs? Who conquered the Incas?
What are the 2 things the Spanish give the Indians in exchange for their work (in the Encomienda System)
1. Provide food, shelter, and good treatment to the Indians
2. Convert them to Christians
What was the Encomienda System basically?
Who worked for Indian's rights?
Bartolome de las Casas
What happened when the Spanish ran out of Indians to do work?
They went and got Africans
Who was the explorer sent by England to the New World? Where did he explore?
John Cabot- coastline of North America
Who was an explorer sent by Spain to the New World? (not Columbus) Where did he explore?
Vasco Nunez de Balboa- Pacific Ocean
What is Ferdinand Magellan credited with?
The 1st circumnavigation of the earth
When the Spanish moved north, what did they establish? Where?
A fort (outpost) in St. Augustine, Fl
What is the Biological (Columbian) Exchange?
Exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between Old World and New World after the time of Columbus.
What 3 crops from the Americas ended up being staple crops in Europe?
What was the "big" animal brought to the Americas that changed Indian life?
What diseases were from the Old World and went to the New World?
Smallpox, malaria, yellow fever, influenza
What disease did the Indians give Europeans?
An exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Atlantic slave trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. 98% of Africans were sent to the Caribbean, South and Central America.
Bartolome de las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor; however his suggestion to replace Natives with Africans was won he would regret.
An early form of corn grown by Native Americans
A Native American who lived in what is now southern Colorado and Utah and northern Arizona and New Mexico and who built cliff dwellings
A later native group to the eastern woodlands. They blended agriculture and hunting living in common villages constructed from the trees and bark of the forests
Are a Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States (principally Georgia, the Carolinas and Eastern Tennessee). Linguistically, they are part of the Iroquoian-language family. In the 19th century, historians and ethnographers recorded their oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples were located.
A member of a people inhabiting the Arctic (northern Canada or Greenland or Alaska or eastern Siberia)
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Their empire stretched from what is today Ecuador to central Chili in the Andes Mountain region of South America. Called the Children of the Sun.
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
365 days, divided into 18 months each with 20 days.
The cutting out of flat areas (terraces) into near vertical slopes to allow farming. Terrace farms appears as steps cut into a mountainside. This adaptation allowed both the early Chinese, and the Inca of Mesoamerica to grow enough food for their large populations.
Early, simplistic man that migrated across the land bridge.
Causes for European interest in exploration?
The Holy Crusades, Renaissance and The Protestant Reformation.
Broke away from the Catholic Church because of his 95 problems with the Catholic Church.
King Henry VIII
Broke away from the Catholic Church because of his disagreement with his inability to get divorced; which eventually led to civil unrest in his country.
Established in Canada and along the Mississippi River, focused on fur trade.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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