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Politics of the United States
Ap Government Unit 1
Terms in this set (54)
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain. Written by Jefferson with help from Adams and Franklin.
this form of democracy emphasizes the broad participation of people in politics.It is NOT a direct democracy. Citizens can influence policy decisions, but politicians are still responsible for implementing policy decisions.
a model of democracy that stresses vigorous competition among various interest groups.
a small number of people, usually those who are wealthy or well-educated, influence political decision making.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade) Each state retained sovereignty, the ability to act independently of the Confederation. Each state had equal representation in a unicameral (single house) legislature.
Rebellion led by farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government. Led by George Washington with Madison, Hamilton and members of the "grand committee.
Compromises at the Constitutional Convention
Compromise on the Importation of Slaves
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power. For example: impeachment of federal officials
Separation of powers
A way of dividing the power of government among the legislative, executive, and judicial branch to prevent tyranny.
A government in which the people rule by their own consent.
A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses with separate rules
Those who favored a stronger national government and weaker state governments. Supported the ratification of the Constitution.
a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president. A compromise made over the issue of representation at the Constitutional Convention
Those who favored strong state governments and a weaker national government. Advocated for a bill of rights to formally address individual and state rights. Concerned about the concentration of power in a central government under the Constitution.
A system of government in which power and responsibilty is divided between the federal and state governments
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
(ex. McCulloch v. Maryland)
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.
New Jersey Plan
Proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by William Paterson of New Jersey for a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally.
Connecticut or Great Compromise
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators.
Format chosen by Founding Fathers. People vote for representatives who then make laws. People do not vote directly on legislation.
may be proposed either by the Congress with a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a constitutional convention called for by two-thirds of the State legislatures.
Three fifths clause
slave counted as 3/5 of a person for population counts to determine how many representatives.
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Federalist Paper #10
Written by James Madison to convince people to support the ratification of the constitution. Argued that factions were inevitable but were best controlled by a large republic that employed a Federalist structure. Argued that competition among factions would limit their negative impacts.
Federalist paper # 51
explains how constitutional provisions of separation of powers and checks and balances control abuses by majorities
written to discourage ratification of the Constitution, Argues that the national government rules over too large a nation and emphasizes the benefits of a small decentralized republic.
Bill of Rights
A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10. Satisfied Anti-federalist concerns.
AKA the "Necessary and Proper Clause" Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution. Has allowed the federal government to expand its power over time.
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations. Has helped the Federal government expand its power over time.
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments. For example, the powers to tax, pass laws and borrow funds
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government.
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
Expressed Powers/Enumerated powers
Powers the Constitution specifically granted to one of the branches of the national government. Listed explicitly in the Constitution. Ex: right to coin money, declare war, regulate foreign and interstate trade, tax, etc.
Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution;
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions. Has Constitutional basis in Necessary and Proper/Elastic Clause
powers that exist for the national government because the government is sovereign. Ex: The Louisiana Purchase
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
The court ruled that the states did not have the power to tax the national bank. The federal government had the right to create the bank under the necessary and proper clause. Used the backing of the Supremacy Clause to argue that states could not interfere with legitimate federal laws
belong to the states and the people;
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states. Granted by the 10th Amendment. For example, regulating voting and administering elections at the state level.
A government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
Federal money given to the states with limited spending guidelines. Allows the states power to decide how to spend funds within relatively loose guidelines. Ex: funds for transportation and state chooses how to allocate.
Federal money given to the states with specific spending guidelines. Gives the federal government the power to decide how funds are spent within the state. Ex: funds for highway repairs, cannot be used for other purposes.
The transfer of power from a high level political office to a lower level; central government to regional, state, or local governments. Example-Welfare Reform Act of 1996
The 10th Amendment
Reserves powers to the states. Has been used successfully by the states to get the federal courts to strike down federal laws that violate this principle.
Guarantees many individual rights including the right to expression and freedom of the press, freedom of religion, the right to petition the government, and the right to peaceful assembly.
The Constitutional process by which the states must approve amendments to the Constitution. Three-quarters of the states must approve an amendment before it is ratified and officially becomes part of the Constitution. Another example of federalism in the Constitution's structure.
Conditions of Aid
Federal rules attached to the grants that states receive. States must agree to abide by these rules in order to receive the grants.
Commerce WITHIN A STATEcommercial activity regulated at the state level
Commerce between different states, can be regulated by Congress.
a set of attitudes and practices held by a people that shapes their political behavior. It includes moral judgments, political myths, beliefs, and ideas about what makes for a good society.
people vote on laws and make decisions for the community as a group (no representatives)
rule by the few, done in their own interest and not for the collective good of a community
United States v Lopez
The Supreme Court ruled that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority under the Commerce Clause when it passed a law prohibiting gun possession in local school zones. This increased state powers to regulate such matters while decreasing federal power
Marbury v Madison
Court case that established the Supreme Court's power to strike down federal laws that violated the constitution. This has allowed for continuous interpretation of the Constitution by the Supreme Court (informal amendment)
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws. Used to expand the powers of the federal government because states must now uphold federal Bill of Rights and other protections for citizens.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Government Chapter 2
AP Government Chapter 3
AP Government Chapter 2
Ap Government Unit 1
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