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NCSF Chapter 2 Part 4- Cardiovascular Physiology
Terms in this set (47)
The two upper chambers in the heart, which receive blood from the veins and push it into the ventricles.
The two lower chambers of the heart, which receive blood from the atria and pump it into the arteries.
A protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen to tissues.
A salt of carbonic acid in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced.
A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
Superior vena cava
The primary vein collecting blood from the head, chest wall, and upper extremities and draining into the right atrium.
A three-segmented valve of the heart that keeps blood in the right ventricle from flowing back into the right atrium.
The contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery.
The relaxation and dilatation of the heart chambers, especially the ventricles, during which they fill with blood.
Pulmonary semilunar valve
A semilunar valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery which prevents blood from flowing from the artery back into the heart.
A vein that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
A valve of the heart, composed of two triangular flaps, that is located between the left atrium and left ventricle and regulates blood flow between these chambers.
A heart valve comprising three flaps, which guards the passage from the left ventricle to the aorta and prevents the backward flow of blood.
The major artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to be delivered by arteries throughout the body.
The muscular tissue of the heart.
Sinoatrial (SA) node
A small mass of specialized
cardiac muscle fibers that controls the heartbeat.
Atrioventricular (AV) node
A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers between the atria and the ventricles of the heart, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria (SA node) to the ventricles.
Part of the impulse-conducting network of the heart that rapidly transmit impulses from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles.
Wave of depolarization
Electrical activation of the myocardium. Occurs in the sinoatrial (SA) node; current travels through the tracts of the atria to the atrioventricular (AV) node then through the Bundle of His, which divides into right and left bundle branches.
The volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart in a single beat.
The number of heart beats per unit of time, usually expressed as beats per minute.
The volume of blood being pumped by the heart; it is equal to the heart rate multiplied by the stroke volume.
The pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels, especially the arteries.
Detect the pressure of blood, and can send messages to the central nervous system to increase or decrease total peripheral resistance and cardiac output.
Dilation or expansion in flow width of a blood vessel.
Constriction or reduction in flow width of a blood vessel.
Resistance of the blood vessels in the body.
A fat deposit on the inside wall of a blood vessel.
Deliver large quantities of blood to different regions of the body.
Tiny blood vessels throughout the body that connect arteries and veins.
One of the small, thin-walled arteries that end in capillaries.
A thin layer of flat epithelial cells that lines blood vessels.
Small veins that join capillaries to larger veins.
A measure of the ease with which a structure may be deformed or distended.
An accumulation of blood in the venous system that can reduce blood return to the heart.
A chronic condition, characterized by thickening and hardening of the arteries and the build-up of plaque on the arterial walls.
A stage of arteriosclerosis in which the arteries become clogged by the build-up of fatty substances, which eventually reduces the flow of blood to the tissues.
A form of low blood pressure, precipitated by moving from a lying or sitting position to standing up straight.
The clear, fluid portion of blood in which cells are suspended.
Red blood cells
Cells in the blood that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues.
White blood cells
A group of several cell types that occur in the bloodstream and are essential for a properly functioning immune system.
A type of blood cell responsible for blood coagulation and for the repair of damaged blood vessels.
The proportion, by volume, of the blood that consists of red blood cells.
Red blood cells
A strain against a closed airway combined with muscle tightening, such as when a person holds his or her breath and tries to move a heavy object.
Consists of the blood vessels that supply blood to, and remove blood from, the heart muscle itself.
Rate pressure product
The measure of myocardial oxygen consumption.
Recommended textbook explanations
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Suzanne M. Keller
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
Anatomy and Physiology
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