atomic emission spectrum

frequencies of light emitted by an atom

frequency

number of wave cycles per second

wavelength

distance from crest to crest

photon

a quantum of light energy

quantum

amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to the next

spectrum

results from the separation of light into different wavelengths

atomic orbital

region of high probability of finding an electron

ground state

lowest energy level for an electron

electron configuration

the ways in which electrons are arranged in orbitals around the nucleus

aufbau principle

states that electrons fill orbitals of lowest energy first

Pauli exclusion principle

states that a maximum of two electrons can occupy an orbital, must have opposite spins

Hund's rule

states that electrons move into orbitals of equal energy one at a time and don't pair up until they have to

4d

the atomic orbital following 5s

dumbbell or figure eight

shape of a p orbital

sphere

shape of an s orbital

double dumbbell or double figure eight

shape of a d orbital

3.0 x 10^8 m/s

the speed of all electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum

higher frequencies

result from electrons falling through larger changes in energy levelss

4s^1 3d^5

more stable arrangement than 4s^2 3d^4

Schrodinger

developed the quantum mechanical model of the atom

quantum mechanical model

describes the probability of finding an electron in a particular location

ROYGBIV

colors of visible light from longest wavelength to shortest

Bohr model

says electrons in orbit have a fixed amount of energy

hydrogen atom

the only atom Bohr's model could explain the spectra of

radio waves

have the lowest frequency and longest wavelength

gamma rays

have the highest frequency and shortest wavelength

directly proportional

energy to frequency

indirectly proportional

wavelength to frequency

2n^2

formula to determinbe the maximum number of electrons in an energy level

principal quantum number

same as energy level, "n"

absorbs energy

when an electron moves to a higher energy level

loses energy

when an electron falls to a lower energy level

s and p

types of orbitals in the 2nd energy level

s, p, and d

types of orbitals in the 3rd energy level

7

number of f orbitals

5

number of d orbitals

3

number of p orbitals

emission of light

occurs when an electron falls to a lower level

energy increases

what happens to the energy of electrons as they move further from the nucleus

sublevel

another name for type of orbital

1s^2 2s^2 2p^5

electron configuration of fluorine

electron cloud

area where an electron is likely to be found

= frequency x wavelength

the speed of light "c"

highest energy orbital

f

orbital diagram

way of showing electron position using arrows