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45 terms

Electrons in atoms

Review for chapter 5 test
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atomic emission spectrum
frequencies of light emitted by an atom
frequency
number of wave cycles per second
wavelength
distance from crest to crest
photon
a quantum of light energy
quantum
amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to the next
spectrum
results from the separation of light into different wavelengths
atomic orbital
region of high probability of finding an electron
ground state
lowest energy level for an electron
electron configuration
the ways in which electrons are arranged in orbitals around the nucleus
aufbau principle
states that electrons fill orbitals of lowest energy first
Pauli exclusion principle
states that a maximum of two electrons can occupy an orbital, must have opposite spins
Hund's rule
states that electrons move into orbitals of equal energy one at a time and don't pair up until they have to
4d
the atomic orbital following 5s
dumbbell or figure eight
shape of a p orbital
sphere
shape of an s orbital
double dumbbell or double figure eight
shape of a d orbital
3.0 x 10^8 m/s
the speed of all electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum
higher frequencies
result from electrons falling through larger changes in energy levelss
4s^1 3d^5
more stable arrangement than 4s^2 3d^4
Schrodinger
developed the quantum mechanical model of the atom
quantum mechanical model
describes the probability of finding an electron in a particular location
ROYGBIV
colors of visible light from longest wavelength to shortest
Bohr model
says electrons in orbit have a fixed amount of energy
hydrogen atom
the only atom Bohr's model could explain the spectra of
radio waves
have the lowest frequency and longest wavelength
gamma rays
have the highest frequency and shortest wavelength
directly proportional
energy to frequency
indirectly proportional
wavelength to frequency
2n^2
formula to determinbe the maximum number of electrons in an energy level
principal quantum number
same as energy level, "n"
absorbs energy
when an electron moves to a higher energy level
loses energy
when an electron falls to a lower energy level
s and p
types of orbitals in the 2nd energy level
s, p, and d
types of orbitals in the 3rd energy level
7
number of f orbitals
5
number of d orbitals
3
number of p orbitals
emission of light
occurs when an electron falls to a lower level
energy increases
what happens to the energy of electrons as they move further from the nucleus
sublevel
another name for type of orbital
1s^2 2s^2 2p^5
electron configuration of fluorine
electron cloud
area where an electron is likely to be found
= frequency x wavelength
the speed of light "c"
highest energy orbital
f
orbital diagram
way of showing electron position using arrows