18 terms

Friedland Chapter 4 APES Modules 9-11

the average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period of time
a layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of Earth, extending up to approximently 16 km (10 miles) and containing most of the atmosphere's nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor
the layer of the the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 19-50 km (10-31 miles) above the surface of the Earth
the percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface
saturation point
the maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature
adiabatic cooling
the cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands
adiabatic heating
the heating effect of increasesd pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of Earth and decreases in volume
latent heat release
the release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water
hadley cells
a convection current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30º N and 30º S
intertropical convergence zone
an area of Earth near the equator that receives the most intense sunlight, where the ascending branches of the two hadley cells converge. Also called ITCZ
polar cells
a convection cell in the atmosphere formed by air that rises at 60º N and 60º S and sinks at the poles, 90º N and 90º S
coriolis effect
the deflection of an object's path due to the rotation of Earth
a large scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern hemisphere
the upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents
thermohaline circulation
a oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water because of differences in salt concentration and temperature.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
the periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing coolr and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and unusally dry weather in southern Africa and southeast Asia
rain shadow
a region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side
Ferrell cells
develop between 30º and 60º north and south latitudes in which the descending winds of the Hadley cells diverge as moist tropical air moves toward the poles in westerlies.