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Global Politics Midterm Exam
Terms in this set (56)
Country or nation, has sovereignty.
International organizations whose members are states (countries). Examples- United Nations, NATO (North Atlantic Trade Organization), EU (European Union), WTO (World Trade Organization. International Government Organizations.
The type of organization that is not part of the government but is doing something international. Examples- Red Cross, Doctors without Borders, Green Peace. Non-Governmental Organizations.
A corporation enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country; a firm that operates in more than one country. Also referred to as an international corporation. Plays and important role in globalization. Examples- McDonald's, Honda, Yahoo, Shell Oil, Walmart. Multi-Nation Corporation.
A nation which has the same borders as a state. Many states under one government.
Multiple nations exist within a single state; subcultures. Examples- Canada, Britain
A nation is divided into multiple states. Examples- Korea, Germany (until 1990), Vietnam (until 1975)
A nation is divided and lives as a minority in multiple states. Not recognized as a state; anarchy- no unity or form of government.
Government ruled by religion aspect. Dictatorship that attempts total control. The government controls all aspects of people's life. Maximum oppression of people's freedom. Historical examples- Nazi Germany, Soviet Union
Dictatorial regime but milder then totalitarian; dictatorship. The government restricts only the people's political rights and freedom.
The world dominated by one power center.
The world divided into two power centers, as in the Cold War.
The world divided into many power centers.
Relates to the spread of democracy. Before the 19th century, before the idea of democracy was spread, all the european countries were absolute states. The king has final stay and final rule and there was no form of representation. Sole power in the king or rulers hands, dictatorship without aggression.
scramble for Africa
A process of invasion, attack, occupation and annexation of sovereign African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between the 1880s and World War I in 1914.
Spanish-American War (1898)
A conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States. Revolts against Spanish rule had been endemic for decades in Cuba and were closely watched by Americans; there had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873.
The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on January 18, 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Under leadership of Otto von Bismarck.
During one century from 1815 to 1914, there was no major war among major European states. This period had to characteristics: 1. multipolar system (the world divided into many powers) and 2. practice of balance of power (theory that states form alliances to offset threatening states).
Britain's Splendid Isolation
A popular conception of the foreign policy pursued by Britain during the late 19th century, under the Conservative premierships of Benjamin Disraeli and the Marquess of Salisbury. The term was actually coined by a Canadian politician to praise Britain's lack of involvement in European affairs. Britain played a keep role in the maintaining balance of power by altering side flexibility.
A principle of US policy, originated by President James Monroe in 1823. Is said that any intervention by external powers in the politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the U.S.
World War I
Ended long peace in 1914. Germany was defeated, US got involved and joined against Germany. European powers were divided into two camps: triple alliance (Germany, Austria, [Italy]) and triple entente (Britain, France, Russia). Sources of conflict were the German problem and the Eastern question.
In the late 19th century, Germany's power considerably grew thanks to national unification and industrial revolution, and other countries felt threatened by it. Triple entente- anti-Germany coalition.
In the Balkan Peninsula, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) declined, with local ethnic groups demanding political independence. European powers disagreed as to how to fill this political vacuum.
Russian Revolution (1917)
the after effects of WWI which russia was apart of, they were apart of the losing side. broke down the russian empire, there is a split in the people of russia, some people were socialists or basically a form of socialism estate, which is a form of communism, under the leadership of the balsaks, which is a communist party, now on the other side you have the revolutionary party, they were for democracy, they go into a civil war, the top leader that emerges in vladamir Lennon, associated to communist party, the socialist party won, this builds up to WWII ultimately the cold war
In 1919, the winner states held a conference to reconstruct international order under US president Woodrow Wilson's leadership. They agreed on the Treaty of Versailles, which applied a harsh punishment to Germany (e.g. loss of territories and colonies, indemnity). Germany's dissatisfaction was an important source of WWII.
League of Nations
Created by Woodrow Wilson in 1920 to keep a peaceful living situation. The league turned out ineffective partly because of the US's absence.
World War II
A war (1939-45) in which the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) were defeated by an alliance (Allied powers) eventually including the UK and its dominions, the former Soviet Union, and the US.
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945).
Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945).
A meeting between France, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy in 1938, during which France and Great Britain, unwilling to confront Hitler, acquiesced with Germany's decision to annex the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia). This appeasement of Germany became synonymous with a lack of political will.
Early in 1868, Keiki, the last shogun or military ruler of Japan, was forced to resign his post, and the Meiji emperor, backed by the conservative daimyos of Satsuma and Choshu, assumed control, restoring to Japan a sense of national unity.
A northern part of China. Invaded by Japan in 1931 and established a puppet state.
The agreement signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by representatives of Germany, Italy, and Japan, that established an alliance between the three powers, which pledged economic and military assistance to one another for ten years.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
In August 1945, World War II came to an end with US's dropping of nuclear bombs over this area.
A term coined by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, to refer to four major Allies of World War II and founders of the United Nations (UN): the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China.
An international organization of countries set up in 1945, in succession to the League of Nations, to promote international peace, security, and cooperation. Currently has 193 members.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953).
The 1947 presidential call to aid countries under Communist threat .
The 1947 call for massive U.S. aid to war-torn Europe.
Chinese Communist leader and theorist. A founder of the Chinese Communist Party (1921), he led the Long March (1934-1935) and proclaimed the People's Republic of China in 1949. As party chairman and the country's first head of state (1949-1959) he initiated the Great Leap Forward and the founding of communes. He continued as party chairman after 1959 and was a leading figure in the Cultural Revolution (1966-1969). In the 1970s he consolidated his political power and established ties with the West.
Korean soldier and politician who led the Korean People's Army against Japan (1932-1945) and served as premier (1948-1972) and president (1972-1994) of North Korea.
Korea used to be a Japanese colony before World War II. After World War II, it was divided into at the 38th parallel: 1. South Korea (backed by US) and 2. North Korea (led by Kim II-sung and back by USSR). In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea for national unification.
The 1949 treaty of alliance that formed _.
A treaty of mutual defense and military aid signed at Warsaw on May 14, 1955, by communist states of Europe under Soviet influence, in response to the admission of West Germany to NATO. The pact was dissolved in 1991.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 showdown over Soviet rockets in Cuba. Fidel Castro's communist revolution in 1959, assistance from USSR. In 1962, after finding a missile base under construction in Cuba, President Kennedy ordered the US Navy to blockade all maritime transportations to Cuba. US and USSR came closest to nuclear war.
Ho Chi Minh
(1890-1969), Vietnamese communist statesman; president of North Vietnam 1954-69; born Nguyen That Thanh. He led the Vietminh against the Japanese during World War II, fought the French until they were defeated in 1954 and Vietnam was divided into North and South Vietnam, and deployed his forces in the guerrilla struggle that became the Vietnam War.
A war between communist North Vietnam and US-backed South Vietnam.
Relaxation of tensions between hostile countries.
The purpose was to cap the number of nuclear weapons held by US and USSR. A series of negotiations between the US and the former Soviet Union aimed at the limitation or reduction of nuclear armaments, which produced it. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks.
Sino-US Reconciliation (1972)
Agreement saying China and US will work things out more peacefully and have better international relations. United by President Nixon and Chinese leaders. It's significant because American believes the opposite of China. Thought it was important for there to be more peace for people and their country.
US National Security Council
The president's foreign policy coordinating body. The White House National Security Council (NSC) in the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the Executive Office.
In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev became the new leader and started this major economic and social reform program. An economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union; intended to increase automation and labor efficiency but it led eventually to the end of central planning in the Russian economy.
End of History
Francis Fukuyama argues that with the collapse of communism, the model of Western liberalism (liberal democracy and market economy) has triumphed, making the world more peaceful. No more war between different ideologies.
Clash of Civilizations
In Huntington's theory, a major and distinct cultural area, based largely on a religion. Samuel Huntington argues that we will see intensifying conflicts between different civilizations. He also predicts that two conflicts will be particularly serious: West vs. Islam and West vs. Confucianism.
New World Order
(1989-1993) George H. W. Bush's foreign policy vision. Key components: commitment to US leadership and proposal strengthening the UN. It was eventually discredited due the UN's failure in Somalia, Rwanda, and Yugoslavia.
A phrase used to describe various related foreign policy principles of former United States president George W. Bush.
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