42 terms

World History Chapter 4

Mrs. Wilde "First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C. - 200 B.C."
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Hyksos
After a series of weak pharaohs Egypt was invaded and conquered by this Asiatic people. They ruled Egypt from about 1640 to 1570 B.C. until they were ousted once more by the Egyptians, who then set up the New Kingdom.
New Kingdom
This was the Kingdom that was set up after the Hyksos were driven from Egypt. The rulers of this period, roughly 1570 to 1075 B.C., were set on making a mighty empire and conquered many lands with new weapons and technology.
Hatshepsut
She was a New Kingdom Pharaoh that took power when her husband died leaving her the guardian of his son, Thutmose III, a young child. She then claimed the throne for herself and the Kingdom thrived under her rule because she focused on trade instead of war.
Thutmose III
The step-son of Hatshepsut, the female pharaoh, who ruled in his stead while he was a child. In order to claim the thrown it is believed that he may have had Hatshepsut killed. He was a warlike leader who conquered Palestine, and Syria, and also led his forces in to the Southern Kingdom of Nubia.
Nubia
A thriving kingdom, also known as Kush, which was located in the southern part of Egypt, along the Nile River. It was a very prosperous kingdom, known for its rich trade network. Its culture was greatly influence by the Egyptians, as they sometimes were ruled by them.
Ramses II
He was known as the greatest of the Egyptian pharaohs and ruled from around 1290 to 1224 B.C. He was known as a great warrior, and for his many building projects all around his kingdom.
Kush
Also known as the Kingdom of Nubia, it was a prosperous trading power in the southern part of Egypt.
Piankhi
He was the great Kushite King who drove the Libyans out of Egypt and put himself in power around 751 B.C. He united the Nile Valley and started the 25th Egyptian Dynasty, which lasted until 671 B.C. when the Assyrians invaded.
Meroe
This city lies close to the Red Sea, and became an important trading center for the Nubian people. The golden age of the Nubian people started here when they were forced out of Egypt by the Assyrians.
Assyria
A militaristic people who forged an empire by conquering Mesopotamia, Egypt, and many other lands, around 850 B.C.
Sennacherib
He was a particulary violent Assyrian king who ruled around 720 to 683 B.C. He claimed to have sacked many cities and killed large numbers of people.
Nineveh
The great capital city of Assyria, founded by King Sennacherib, was the largest of its time. The city was built along the Tigris River and was surrounded by a wall 3 miles long and a mile wide.
Ashurbanipal
The Assyrian king who built one of the ancient world's largest libraries, containing over 20,000 clay tablets. The works were separated by subject and cataloged.
Medes
These people had a large empire just east of the Assyrian empire. They joined forces with the Chaldeans in 612 B.C. in order to conquer the Assyrians and burn their capital, Nineveh, to the ground.
Chaldeans
An ancient people who lived in southern Babylon, along the Persian Gulf. After defeating the Assyrians they took over the area and founded an empire with Babylon as its capital.
Nebuchadnezzar
He was a great Chaldean King who was known for his great building projects, especially in the city of Babylon. He created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the ancient wonders of the world, and a seven tiered ziggurat.
Cyrus
He was a great Persian ruler and military genius who began a campaign of conquest from 550 to 539 B.C. He ruled his empire with a strong yet tolerant hand, respecting the customs and religions of the people he conquered.
Cambyses
He was the son of Cyrus who took control of the Persian Empire, after his father was killed in battle in 530 B.C. He expanded the empire to include Egypt but alienated the people by persecuting them for their religious beliefs.
Darius
One of Cambyses elite body guard, he took over the rule of the empire around 522 B.C. He did this with the help of the 'Immortals', elite Persian soldiers. After restoring order to the empire he continued the conquests of Egypt and Anatolia, but was never able to take Greece.
Satrap
In order to control the large Persian Empire Darius divided it up into 20 provinces controled by goveners called Satraps. They ruled their provinces like kings but were always under the control of the Emperor.
Royal Road
A road that ran 1,677 miles connecting Susa, in Persia, with Sardis, in Anatolia. It had way stations every 15 miles to make it faster for royal messengers to travel the distance.
Zoroaster
The Persian profit who started the religion of Zoroastrianism around 600 B.C. To explain why the world has so much suffering in it he taught that the Earth is a battle ground in which good and evil fight eachother. Humanity must choose to do good, not evil.
Confucius
He was a Chinese scholar, born in 551 B.C., who wanted to bring stability and order to the land. He believed order could be restored through 5 basic relationships; Ruler and Subject, Father and Son, Husband and Wife, Older Brother and Younger Brother, and Friend with Friend.
Filial Piety
This is the belief that a person should respect their parents and ancestors.
Bureaucracy
When a government needs to have smaller departments to help divide up the work of the whole. It is believed Confucius laid the ground work for bureaucracy in China with his belief in the importance of education.
Daoism
This is the belief, started by the Chinese philosopher Laozi, that the world has a natural order and that all creatures need to follow it. He believed that all creatures on earth follow the natural order, except humans. Followers of Daoism tend to study nature through the sciences in order to understand the natural order.
Legalism
A philosophy, started in China by Hanfeizi, and Li Si, in which a powerful government should be used to keep control. They believed in rewards for good behavior and punishments for bad behavior, but that punishments should be used more often than rewards.
I Ching (Yi Jing)
This is a book of oracles, or predictions, in which a person throws a special coin and then interprets the meaning from the book. It usually offers good advise and, or common sense.
Yin and Yang
An ancient belief that the natural order of the world is held in harmony with the two halves of Yin (cold, dark, soft, and mysterious things) and Yang (warm, bright, hard, and clear things) balancing each other out.
Qin Dynasty
This powerful, ruling family, came out of the state of Qin and replaced the ruling Zhou Dynasty. They used the philosophy of Legalism to rule their subjects and impose peace.
Shi Huangdi
A title that was adopted by the emperor of Qin, in 221 B.C., which meant 'First Emperor'. As emperor, Shi Huangdi, ruled with absolute authority, violetly quelling all internal struggles. He expanded his empire through conquest, wishing to unify all of China under his rule.
Autocracy
When a government has unlimited power and uses it anyway they wish. This was the governmental philosophy of Shi Huangdi.
Babylon
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It was the capital of the Babylonian Empire around 600 B.C.
Confucianism
A form of philosophical thought that was founded by the Chinese scholar Confucius. This philosophy centered on relationships, especially those in the family, and taught the importance of filial piety, and respect for ancestors.
Great Wall of China
A large wall created by Shi Huangdi to connect preexisting defensive walls, along the northern border of China. Built to protect his empire from northern invaders, Shi Huangdi used thousands of forced laborers to build this wall.
Persia
This mighty empire first achived greatness under the rule of Cyrus the Great, in 550 B.C. This empire would last for generations and eventually encompass Egypt, Anatolia, and lands east into India.
First Emperor of Qin
He gave himself the title of Shi Huangdi, or First Emperor, and ruled with an absolute and ruthless hand. He quelled all internal struggles and then proceeded to expand the empire by conquering outside invaders, with the end goal of unifying China.
Laozi
He was the Chinese thinker who believed that all living things on earth, except humans, followed the Dao, or natural order. His followers called this philosophy Daoism, and believed that humans should study nature and the sciences.
Legalists
These are people who believe in the philosphy of legalism. That is they believe that governments should rule with absolute control over its population.
Hittites
An Indo-European people who lived in Anatolia, or modern day Turkey, around 2000 B.C. They created an empire that would span all the way into Mesopotamia with the help of their advanced Iron weapons.
Sea People
These were unknown invaders, possibly from many different cultures, who invaded Egypt and helped to bring an end to the Egyptian Empire.
Hanfeizi
He, along with Li Si, was among the founders of the governmental philosphy of Legalism. They believed that in order to have a stable country you needed to have a strong government with absolute power.