66 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 2


Terms in this set (...)

-anything that occupies space and has mass
made of atoms
-after a chemical reaction, the original atoms remain
a measurement of the amount of matter an object contains
the smallest particle than can contain the chemical properties of an element
-a substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler components
-made of only one type of atom
periodic table
a chart of all chemical elements currently known, organized by their properties
a particle that contains more than one atom
a molecule containing more than one element
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of a particular atom
mass number
a measurement of the total number of protons and neutrons in an element
atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons
radioactive decay
-protons and neutrons ejected from nucleus (parent)
-release energy (can damage DNA)
-creates new element (daughter)
-release large amounts of energy
-measured in half-life
-carbon dating
the time it takes for one-half of an original radioactive parent atom to decay
covalent bond
the bond formed when elements share electrons
ionic bond
a chemical bond between two oppositely charged ions
hydrogen bond
-when electrons are not shared equally in a compound that contains Hydrogen
-can attract anything negatively charged
polar molecule
-a molecule in which one side is more positive and the other side is more negative
-shared electrons spend more time near the oxygen atom than near the hydrogen atom
-the ability to do work or transfer heat
-measured in joules (J)
-electromagnetic radiation
-high or low quality
electromagnetic radiation
-transfers energy in protons
-measured in wavelengths
a massless packet of energy that carries electromagnetic radiation at the speed of light
the amount of energy used when a one-watt electrical device is turned on for one second
potential energy
stored energy that has not been released
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
chemical energy
-potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds
-can be released by ingesting food
-the measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance
first law of thermodynamics
-a law of nature stating that energy can neither be created nor destroyed only transfered
second law of thermodynamics
-the law stating that when energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work is diminished (reduced)
energy efficiency
-the ratio of the amount of work done to the total amount of energy introduced to the system
energy quality
-the ease with which an energy source can be used for work
-disorder/randomness in a system
open system
-a system in which exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries.
closed system
-exchange of matter or energy does not occur across system boundaries. Ex: Matter on Earth continuously recycles
-a loss from a system
-an addition to a system
system analysis
-looks at inputs and outputs to determine a system's function and health
steady state
-input = output
-amount of energy is not increasing
-adjustment to input or output caused by change
negative feedback loops
-a feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring
positive feedback loops
a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified
the force that results from gravity acting on mass
Properties of Water
-surface tension
-capillary action
-high specific heat
-less dense when frozen
-excellent solvent
-can form acids and bases
Surface Tension
-cohesion of water molecules creates stretchy surface layer
Capillary Action
-cohesion and adhesion of water molecules pulls them along a surface or up a tube
Less dense when frozen then liquid
-polarity pushes water molecules apart at 39F and 4C
High Specific Heat
-requires a large amount of heat to boil and vaporize water
Excellent Solvent
-polar molecule can dissolve other compounds with charges
Can form acids and bases
-acids add hydrogen ions (high hydrogen ion H+, low hydroxide ion (OH-) content
-bases add hydroxide ions (low hydroxide ion OH-, high hydrogen ion H+
Conservation of Matter
-matter cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another
Organic Molecules
-contain carbon and hydrogen
-carbohydrates (CHO)
-lipids (CHO with little O; fats, waxes, oils)
-proteins (CHONS,amino acids)
-nucleic acids (CHONP, DNA and RNA)
Inorganic Molecules
-can contain Carbon and Hydrogen just NOT together
-rate at which work is done
-energy= power x time
-kilowatts (kW)
Kinetic Energy
-energy in option or use
Potential Energy
-stored energy
-chemical energy
Law of Thermodynamics
-1st Law: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another
-2nd Law: when energy is changed, it releases "useless" or waste energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation (heat, light...)
Energy Efficiency
-waste energy is lost at each conversion
-more energy = more efficiency
Open System
-exchange of matter or energy occur across system boundaries
Negative Feedback Loop
-accelerates change
-system becomes skewed in one direction
natural law
-phenomenon which has been rigorously tested and to which there are no known exceptions
amount of energy needed to change the temperature of water
-is great in relation to the energy required to change the temperature of most other substances
-is responsible for more moderate seasonal temperature swings in areas close to large bodies of water
-carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Bases contribute _______ to a solution
-negative Hydroxide ions
Positive Feedback Loop
-when feedback into a system increases a rate of response
-may be seen in some examples of population growth
Natural experiment
-natural event changes an ecosystem
adaptive management plan
a plan for ecosystem restoration that provides flexibility so that managers can modify it as changes occur
adaptive management plant
It is an approach to ecosystem restoration that recognizes uncertainties, embraces multiple problem-solving strategies, and allows for adjustments to be made along the way.
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical change
pH is a measure of how acidic/basic water is. The range goes from 0 - 14, with 7 being neutral. pHs of less than 7 indicate acidity, whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base. pH is really a measure of the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the water.

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