63 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 2

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matter
-anything that occupies space and has mass
made of atoms
-after a chemical reaction, the original atoms remain
mass
a measurement of the amount of matter an object contains
atom
the smallest particle than can contain the chemical properties of an element
element
-a substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler components
-made of only one type of atom
periodic table
a chart of all chemical elements currently known, organized by their properties
molecules
a particle that contains more than one atom
compounds
a molecule containing more than one element
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of a particular atom
mass number
a measurement of the total number of protons and neutrons in an element
isotopes
atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons
radioactive decay
-protons and neutrons ejected from nucleus (parent)
-release energy (can damage DNA)
-creates new element (daughter)
-release large amounts of energy
-measured in half-life
-carbon dating
half-life
the time it takes for one-half of an original radioactive parent atom to decay
covalent bond
the bond formed when elements share electrons
ionic bond
a chemical bond between two oppositely charged ions
hydrogen bond
-when electrons are not shared equally in a compound that contains Hydrogen
-can attract anything negatively charged
polar molecule
-a molecule in which one side is more positive and the other side is more negative
-shared electrons spend more time near the oxygen atom than near the hydrogen atom
energy
-the ability to do work or transfer heat
-measured in joules (J)
-electromagnetic radiation
-high or low quality
electromagnetic radiation
-transfers energy in protons
-measured in wavelengths
photons
a massless packet of energy that carries electromagnetic radiation at the speed of light
joule
the amount of energy used when a one-watt electrical device is turned on for one second
potential energy
stored energy that has not been released
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
chemical energy
-potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds
-can be released by ingesting food
temperature
-the measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance
first law of thermodynamics
-a law of nature stating that energy can neither be created nor destroyed
second law of thermodynamics
-the law stating that when energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work is diminished
energy efficiency
-the ratio of the amount of work done to the total amount of energy introduced to the system
energy quality
-the ease with which an energy source can be used for work
entropy
-disorder/randomness in a system
open system
-a system in which exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries.
closed system
-exchange of matter or energy does not occur across system boundaries. Ex: Matter on Earth continuously recycles
outputs
-a loss from a system
inputs
-an addition to a system
system analysis
-looks at inputs and outputs to determine a system's function and health
steady state
-input = output
-amount of energy is not increasing
feedback
-adjustment to input or output caused by change
negative feedback loops
-a feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring
positive feedback loops
a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified
adaptive management
-method of managing natural systems that accords for "normal" fluctuations and human impacts
-pollution, flood, draught, climate change, economic development, habitat destruction or restoration
weight
the force that results from gravity acting on mass
Properties of Water
-surface tension
-capillary action
-high specific heat
-less dense when frozen
-excellent solvent
-can form acids and bases
Surface Tension
-cohesion of water molecules creates stretchy surface layer
Capillary Action
-cohesion and adhesion of water molecules pulls them along a surface or up a tube
Less dense when frozen
-polarity pushes water molecules apart at 39F and 4C
High Specific Heat
-requires a large amount of heat to boil and vaporize water
Excellent Solvent
-polar molecule can dissolve other compounds with charges
Can form acids and bases
-acids add hydrogen ions (high hydrogen ion H+, low hydroxide ion (OH-) content
-bases add hydroxide ions (low hydroxide ion OH-, high hydrogen ion H+
Conservation of Matter
-matter cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another
Organic Molecules
-contain carbon and hydrogen
-carbohydrates (CHO)
-lipids (CHO with little O; fats, waxes, oils)
-proteins (CHONS,amino acids)
-nucleic acids (CHONP, DNA and RNA)
Inorganic Molecules
-can contain Carbon and Hydrogen just NOT together
Power
-rate at which work is done
-energy= power x time
-kilowatts (kW)
Kinetic Energy
-energy in option or use
Potential Energy
-stored energy
-chemical energy
Law of Thermodynamics
-1st Law: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another
-2nd Law: when energy is changed, it releases "useless" or waste energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation (heat, light...)
Energy Efficiency
-waste energy is lost at each conversion
-more energy = more efficiency
Open System
-exchange of matter or energy occur across system boundaries
Negative Feedback Loop
-accelerates change
-stimulus
-system becomes skewed in one direction
natural law
-phenomenon which has been rigorously tested and to which there are no known exceptions
amount of energy needed to change the temperature of water
-is great in relation to the energy required to change the temperature of most other substances
-is responsible for more moderate seasonal temperature swings in areas close to large bodies of water
Macromolecules
-carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Bases contribute _______ to a solution
-negative Hydroxide ions
Positive Feedback Loop
-when feedback into a system increases a rate of response
-may be seen in some examples of population growth
Natural experiment
-natural event changes an ecosystem

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