How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

85 terms

Biology 2

STUDY
PLAY
diffusion
the movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lesser concentration
added that all cells come from pre existing cells
Rudolph Virchow
penicilin
antibiotic that prevents peptidoglycan cell wall from forming (prokaryotic)
capsule
an organized layer of polysaccharides firmly attached to cell wall (prokaryotic)
antiphagocytic, allows bacteria to stick, prevents drying out
3 functions of capsule (prokaryotic)
antiphagocytic
can't be "eaten". too greasy (prokaryotic)
prevent cell from bursting
function of peptidoglycan cell wall (prokaryotic)
attachment
function of pili/fimbriae (prokaryotic)
erythomycin
substance put in newborns' eyes to prevent blindness from gonococcus
nucleoid region
area of the prokaryotic cell in which the single, circular bacterial chromosome is found
nucleus
controls everything that goes on in cell
vacuoles
store food, water, waste, etc.
endoplasmic reticulum
elaborate transportation network through which proteins and lipids pass
golgi body
processes, packages, and exports proteins
ribosomes
make proteins
mitochondrion
produce energy for cells
cell membrane
protects the cell, regulates molecular traffic
chloroplast
contains pigments which absorb visible light
cytoplasm
glycolysis occurs in the
mitochondrial matrix
kreb cycle occurs in the
inner membrane
electron transport chain occurs on the
cristae
folding of inner membrane
golgi apparatus
processes, packages, and exports proteins and lipids
ribosome
function is to make proteins. found in all living cells
streptomycin
antibiotic that targets bacterial ribosomes
facilitated diffusion
type of diffusion where a protein carrier helps with the movement of substances. No ATP required
endocytosis
the cell takes in a large amount of a substance
phagocytosis
cell eating
pinocytosis
cell drinking
exocytosis
the cell exports a large amount of a substance
osmosis
special type of diffusion involving water and a membrane.
glycolysis, kreb cycle, electron transport chain
3 steps in cellular respiration
alcoholic fermentation
pyruvate is converted into ethanol and Co2. No ATP generated. Purpose is to regenerate NAD+
active transport
not a type of diffusion. at some point substances move against the concentration gradient. (keep going after equilibrium)
protein carrier
active transport requires a _______
coenzyme A
guide picked up by acetyl when pyruvate is broken down
decarboxylation
taking away CO2 from pyruvate and making acetyl group
citric acid cycle
kreb cycle also called
ATP synthase
protein that hydrogen ions are funneled through
isotonic
animal cells prefer an _____ environment
lysis
in a hypotonic environment, animal cells will undergo _____
crenation
in a hypertonic environment, animal cells will undergo _____
cellular respiration
the process by which cells get ATP from glucose
2 ATP
net gain from glycolysis per glucose
38 ATP
there is enough energy in glucose to give ______
2 ATP
added to destabilize glucose during glycolysis
2 Pyruvate
End result of glycolysis
lactic acid fermentation
occurs in muscle cells that don't have enough oxygen to break down pyruvate. no ATP generated
1 ATP
____ generated per pyruvate. 2 per glucose
acetyl group, 2 Co2
2 carbons enter kreb cycle as _____ and 2 leave as ______
schleiden and schwann
proposed the cell theory
well defined nucleus
prokaryotic cells lack a ________
organelles
prokaryotic cells lack membrane bound ________
peptidoglycan
prokaryotic cells have a ________ cell wall
binary fission
prokaryotic cells divide by ______. (divide every 20 minutes)
spontaneous generation
states that life can spontaneously emerge from nonlife
nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, nucleolus, histones
4 structure of nucleus
hydrolytic
digestive enzyme
autolysis
selective cell death
lysosome
made by golgi apparatus. contains hydrolytic enzymes
granum
stack of thylakoids
absorb light
function of thylakoid
stroma
fluid in chloroplast
rough ER
has ribosomes, makes proteins usually for export (like antibodies)
smooth ER
no ribosomes. makes lipids
transmembrane, instrinsic, integral
3 terms for protein that spans whole membrane
extrinsic, peripheral
2 terms for protein that takes up half of membrane
glycoproteins
involved in cell to cell communication
cell recognition, adhesion, signal transduction
3 functions of glycoproteins
oxygen
terminal electron acceptor
nadh, fadh2
pass electrons off to carriers on the electron transport chin
electron transport chain
series of special proteins on the inner mitochondrial membrane
NAG and NAM
peptidoglycan cell wall is made of
c6h12o6 + o2 = co2 +h2o + atp
formula for cellular respiration
nadh dehydrogenase, ubiquinone, cytochrome b-c1, cytochrome c, cytochrome oxidase, atp synthase
proteins in electron transport chain
intermembrane space
reservoir of h+
small nonpolar molecules
easily pass through pores in membrane
larger lipid soluble molecules
dissolve through lipid bilayer (steroids)
polar molecules and ions
require a special protein gate
turgid
plant cells in a hypotonic environment
flaccid
plant cells in a isotonic environment
plasmolysed
plant cells in a hypertonic environment
2
get _ nadh during glycolysis
oxygen
aerobic respiration requires
mitochondrion
aerobic respiration occurs in the