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USH Unit 1 - Constitution Vocabulary - Part 2 of 2
Ms. McCray's USH Class
Terms in this set (39)
This term applies to those individuals who played a major role in declaring U.S. independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution. They include Thomas jefferson, George Washington, and James Madison.
Articles of Confederation
1st System of government in the US; was WEAK because government could not tax or easily make laws to protect citizens; had one branch of government.
a rebellion by debtor farmers in western Massachusetts, led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays, against Boston creditors. It contributed to the demise of the Articles of Confederation.
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
a written plan of government
Supporters of a strong central govt. who supported the ratification of the new constitution
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") used to convice readers to support the new constitution
people who opposed the Constitution because they opposed a strong central government
A law making body made of two houses (bi means 2). Example: Congress (our legislature) is made of two house - The House of Representatives and The Senate.
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
All other things being equal, consumers buy more of a good when its price decreases and less when its price increases, New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress
Compromise proposed by Roger Sherman of Connecticut in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Three Fifths Compromise
The agreement to help southern states gain seats in Congress allowed the number of each state's representatives in Congress to include three-fifths of the slave population
Father of the Constitutioon, Strict constructionist, 4th president, leads nation through War of 1812
First National Bank
National Bank created by Hamilton; helped wealthy northerners
A person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take-
A person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking; broad interpretation of the Constitution
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
John Jay's Treaty
John Jay negotiated a treaty with Britain to leave American soil, pay for damaged US ships, but IS had to pay for the debts from pre-revolution to Britain and British did not end impressment--treaty was extremely unpopular with Americans
Alien and Sedition Acts
a series of four laws enacted in 1798 against people who opposed the Federalists; it reduced the political power of recent immigrants to the United States
Marbury v. Madison 1803
Under Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court of the United States held that ONLY the Supreme Court of the United States has the power to declare laws unconstitutional. Established judicial review.
a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
slave importation ban
1801 Became Illegal to import slaves from Africa to America. Breeding female slaves became common. Families were divided up
a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution
the right of the supreme court to determine if a law violates the constitution
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government.
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches to prevent abuse of power
separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Baron de Montesquieu
French philosopher who developed the idea of the separation of powers into three branches of government
amending the Constitution
Needs approval of two-thirds of Congress and three-fourths of the states
He invented the cotton gin which was a machine that separated the cotton from the seed. This greatly improved efficiency and increased the demand for slaves.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
George Washington's farewell address
In George Washington's farewell address to the nation, he warned against entangling alliances with foreign nations and the dangers of political parties
To be involved in the affairs of foreign nations
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
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