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heart is located

the anterior inferior mediastium.

anterior inferior mediastium is the region=

between 2 pleural cavities.

2/3 rds of the hearts mass is where?

to the left of the midline

the base of the heart is where?

just below the second rib and is directed toward the right shoulder.

the apex of the heart lies where?

in the fifth intercostals space and 7-9 cm to the left of the midline directed toward the left hip.

heart is approximately the size of

the owners fist

at birth the hearts size is?

a perfect square of 25mm, height length and width.

a t birth the heart weighs

about 20g/.75oz.

in an adult the heart measures at

12.5cm long, 9cm wide, and 5 cm deep.

in an adult the heart weighs

300g/ 11oz.

left and right atria's function is

collecting chambers

each atrium has an


an auricle is a

triangular appendage that helps increase the surface area of the atria when needed to expand.

right and left ventricles function is

pumping chambers

the right ventricle is thin and involved in

pulmonary circulation

the left ventricle is thick and involved in

systemic circulation

the heart is enclosed and held in place by the


majority of the anterior and half of the posterior of the heart is covered by

the pericardium

this resembles a bag around the heart and consists of fibrous connective tissue

fibrous pericardium

fibrous pericardium prevents

over destention of the heart

fibrous pericardium provides

a tough membrane around the heart and anchors the hearts in the mediastium

serous pericardium forms

a double layer around the heart and is thin and delicate

serous pericardium consists of 2 layers called

parietal serous pericardium and visceral serous pericardium or epicardium

perietal serous pericardium is located

directly d=beneath and fused to the fibrous pericardium

visceral serous pericardium or epicardium is attached to

the myocardium

between the parietal serous and the epicardium is a space called____ , and a fluid called____.

pericardial cavity, pericardial fluid

pericardial fluid functions in preventing what?

friction between the membranes as the heart contracts. there is also about 30 ml of pericardial fluid.

what is pericarditis?

inflammation of the pericardium and with this there is a pericardial fluid build up or extensive bleeding into the pericardium.since pericardium can't stretch it compresses the heart

when the heart compresses it is known as

cardiac tamponade and can result in cardiac failure or if the membrane dries it will cause painful friction or rubbing.

epicardium is

a thin transparent outer layer of the wall. it may have fat deposits

which layer of the heart is the thickest?


the reinforced muscle ridges in the myocardium is called

trabeculae carneae

what is a thin layer of the endothelium overlying a thin layer of connective tissues


the heart valves are former by what?

a fold of the endocardium, making a double layer of endcardium with connective tissues in between.

heart sound heard through a


auscultaion means

listening to body sounds


first heart sounds that occurs at the beginning of ventricular systole. its l ow frequency.

first heart sound is caused by

vibrations of AV valves during and after closure. turbulence in the stream of blood as it is ejected through atrial openings.and vibrations in muscle of ventricles as they contract.

"dubb" "dupp"

second heart sound that occurs at end of ventricular systole as ventricular pressure begins to fall. and is caused by closure of the semilunar valves .it is higher pitched than lubb.

dubb is shorter in duration time than lubb?


3rd and 4th heart sound may be heard with


3heart sound occurs

during or after ventricular contraction. this is due to the tension of the muscle when the blood hits the the ventricles from the atria.

this is common in children and adolescents, rarely audible in people over 30

3rd heart sound

4th heart sound

occurs during atrial contraction.


abnormal sounds due to back flow of blood when valves fail to close completely.

funtional murmur occurs

only during strenuous excursive and are of no threat

organic murmurs indicate

presence of valvular abnormalities

systolic murmur - lubb-shh-dupp

occurs cuz blood flows back int atria from ventricles through av valves

diastolic murmur lubb-dupp-shh

occurs bcd blood back flows into the ventricles from the arteries through semilunar valves

swish is

regurgitation cz valves dnt close completely

screech is

torturous flow through constricted valves

parasympathetic innervation branches of the

vagus nerve, cranial nerve10

sympathetic innervation is at the

superior, middle, and inferior cardiac nerves

sensory nerves(feedback) are

baroreceptors located in the arch of the aorta and the carotid sinuses end pressure change info. to the medulla of the brain.and other receptors in same area send info. on dissolved oxygen concentrations to the medulla of the brain.

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