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the base of the heart is where?
just below the second rib and is directed toward the right shoulder.
the apex of the heart lies where?
in the fifth intercostals space and 7-9 cm to the left of the midline directed toward the left hip.
an auricle is a
triangular appendage that helps increase the surface area of the atria when needed to expand.
fibrous pericardium provides
a tough membrane around the heart and anchors the hearts in the mediastium
serous pericardium consists of 2 layers called
parietal serous pericardium and visceral serous pericardium or epicardium
between the parietal serous and the epicardium is a space called____ , and a fluid called____.
pericardial cavity, pericardial fluid
pericardial fluid functions in preventing what?
friction between the membranes as the heart contracts. there is also about 30 ml of pericardial fluid.
what is pericarditis?
inflammation of the pericardium and with this there is a pericardial fluid build up or extensive bleeding into the pericardium.since pericardium can't stretch it compresses the heart
when the heart compresses it is known as
cardiac tamponade and can result in cardiac failure or if the membrane dries it will cause painful friction or rubbing.
the heart valves are former by what?
a fold of the endocardium, making a double layer of endcardium with connective tissues in between.
first heart sound is caused by
vibrations of AV valves during and after closure. turbulence in the stream of blood as it is ejected through atrial openings.and vibrations in muscle of ventricles as they contract.
second heart sound that occurs at end of ventricular systole as ventricular pressure begins to fall. and is caused by closure of the semilunar valves .it is higher pitched than lubb.
3heart sound occurs
during or after ventricular contraction. this is due to the tension of the muscle when the blood hits the the ventricles from the atria.
systolic murmur - lubb-shh-dupp
occurs cuz blood flows back int atria from ventricles through av valves
diastolic murmur lubb-dupp-shh
occurs bcd blood back flows into the ventricles from the arteries through semilunar valves
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