Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes

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Pangea
The large super-continent that coincides with the Theory of Plate Tectonics
Convergent Boundary
Two plates move in a direction towards each other
Divergent Boundary
Two plates move in a direction away from each other
Transform Boundary
Two plates scrape past each other in opposite directions
Subduction
at a convergent boundary, one plate is more dense and sinks beneath the other plate.
Theory of Plate Tectonics
The idea that earth's crust is made up of moving plates.
Plate Boundary
the place where plates meet.
Earthquake
An event that occurs when rocks along the plate boundaries shift suddenly and release their stored energy.
Fault
A break in the earth's surface along which rock can move.
focus
The beginning point of an earthquake; the location from which seismic waves travel outwards.
seismic wave
The vibrations that flow out from the focus of an earthquake.
epicenter
The point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus of an earthquake.
seismologist
A scientist who studies the movement of the earth.
seismograph
A machine used to detect, time and measure the movements of the earth.
magnitude
The amount of energy released from an earthquake.
tsunami
A sudden series of very long and tall waves; usually caused by an earthquake, volcano, or landslide occurring under or near the ocean.
magma
The molten rock and gasses beneath the earth's surface.
volcano
A crack in the earth's crust through which molten rock comes to the surface.
volcanologist
A scientist who studies volcanoes.
magma chamber
A pocket of molten rock deep in the earth's lithosphere.
lava
Magma that has broken through the surface of the earth.
Ring of Fire
The ring of volcanos found in an area around the Pacific Ocean.
hot spot
Places on the Earth where a pool of intensely hot magma rises towards the surface, melting rock until it breaks through the crust.
Pyroclastic flow
An avalanche of red-hot dust and gasses that races down the sides of some volcanos.
volcanic ash
Clouds filled jagged bits of crushed rock.
ash
The powdery residue left after the burning of a substance.
Cinder cone
A conical hill produced by eruption of ash, cinders or lava.
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