Terms in this set (289)

A psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages, in which a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood. Each stage builds upon the successful completion of earlier stages and challenges of incomplete stages can be expected to reappear in the future. Stages function as negotiations between biological forces and sociocultural forces.

To ___, the first stage of development is significant not just because of localization of pleasure in the mouth but because in the feeding situation a relationship of trust or mistrust is developed between the infant and the mother. Similarly the anal stage is significant not only for the change in the nature of the major erogenous zone, but also because toilet training is a significant social situation in which the child may develop a sense of autonomy or succumb to shame and self-doubt. In the phallic stage, the child must struggle with the issue of taking pleasure in, as opposed to feeling guilty about, being assertive, competitive and successful.
The latency and genital stages are periods when the individual develops a sense of industry and success or a sense of inferiority and perhaps most important of all a sense of identity or a sense of role diffusion.The crucial task of adolescence is the establishment of a sense of ego identity, an accrued confidence that the way one views oneself has a continuity with ones past and is matched by the perception of others. In contrast to people who develop a sense of identity, people with role diffusion experience the feeling of not really knowing who they are, of not knowing whether what they think they are matches what others think of them, and of not knowing how they have devleoped in this way or where they are heading in the future. During late adolescence and college years, this struggle with a sense of identity may lead to joining a variety of groups and to considerable anguish about the choice of a career. If these issues are not resolved during this time, the individual is later in life filled with a sense of despair. Life is too short and it is too late to start all over again
the subjective probability that a given behavior will lead to a particular outcome or reinforcer. How likley is it that the behavior will lead to the outcome? Having high or strong ____ means the individual is confident the behavior will result in the outcome. having low __ means the individual believes it is unlikely that his or her behavior will result in reinforcment. If the outcomes are equally desirable, we wil engage in the behavior that has the greatest likelihood of paying off (has the highest ___.) to have high ___ people must believe both
a- that they have the capacity to enact the behavior effectively and
b- the the behavior will result in reinforcment.
that are based on past experience; the more often a behavior has led to reinforcement in the past the stronger the persons expectancy that the behavior will achieve the outcome now. People do not need to have direct experience with reinforcement of a particular behavior. Our observations of outcomes of others behavior affect our own ___. If we see someone else being punished for a particular behavior, we dont have to experience punishment personally to form an ___ that this behavior is likely to be punished.
__ is a subjective probablity because one common source of pathology is irrational ___. There may be no relationship whatsoever between the persons subjective assessment of how likely a reinforcement will be and the actual objective probability of the reinforcers occuring. People can either over or underestimate this likelihood, and both distortions can potentially be problematic.
-our expectations about the outcome of situations are highly influenced by whether or not we think we will succeed in the things we attempt (self-efficacy)
Theory was based on 19 propositions, of these we need to know:
1- the organism has one basic tendency and striving- to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism. have an innate impulse to care for myself, heal and grow.This includes seeking to 1-keep myself safe/ intact and 2- realize my inward potential-become who i am capable of becoming
2- behavior is basically the goal-directed attempt of the organism to satisfy its needs as experienced, in the field as percieved- i behave as i do in order to meet my needs, as i experience and perceive them, and as i experience and perceive reality.
3- emotion accompanies and in general facilitates such goal directed behavior- i am emotionally present in my behavior.My feelings are part of how i attempt to get my perceived needs met. What i feel and how strongly depends on how important the need is to me
4- psychological adjustment exists when the concept of self is such that all sensory and visceral experiences of the organism are, or may be, assimilated on a symbolic level into a consistent relationship with the concept of self-meaning, when i am connected to my own authentic being, i am able to be open to my actual embodied experience in its immediacy and totality and integrate this into how i see myself and my world
5-psychological maladjustment exists when the organism denies awareness of significant sensory and visceral experiences, which consequently are not symbolized and organized into the gestalt of the self structure. when this situation exists, there is a basic or potential psychological tension-when i am disconnected from my own authentic being, i will deny awareness of significant actual embodied experience, so will be unable to make sense of this or integrate it into how i see myself and my world. This will cause deep unease and tension within me
when the individual perceives and accepts into one consistent integrated system all his sensory and visceral experiences, then he is necessarily more understanding others and is more accepting of others as seperate individuals
-There is also an importance in listening to ones feelings: 'listen to your feelings" often their wiser than your intellect (trust in your own thoughts and the accuracy in your feelings)
stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precendence over others. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulfil the next one, and so on. 5 needs (bottom to top)
1- physiological needs (air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex and sleep)
2- safety needs- (protection from elements, security, order, law stability and freedom from fear)
3- belongingness and love needs (freindship, intimacy, affection and love from work group, family, friends and romantic relationships)
4- esteem needs- (prestige and feeling of accomplishment; achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance,self respect and respect from others)
5- self actualization- (achieving ones full potential, including creative activities; realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences)

divides into basic (or deficiency) needs (physiological/safety) and growth needs (love and esteem) which relate to fulfilling our human potential (Self-actualization)
one must satisfy lower level deficit needs before progressing onto meet higher level growth needs; if it is not satisfied the need with grow stronger. Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy towards self-actualization. progress is often disrupted by failure to meet lower level needs, or life experiences (i.e. divorce or loss of job) may cause an individual to fluctuate between the levels. according to __, only one in one hundred people become fully self-actualized because our society rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs
In regards to motivation, __ believed that these needs motivate us (both as a tension-reduction and enhancement activity because of self-actualization, where a person realizes their potential)
concept is based on the premise that the primary motivational force of an individual is to find a meaning in life. Basic principles:
1-life has meaning under all circumstances, even the most miserable ones
2-our main motivation for living is our will to find meaning in life
3- We have freedom to find meaning in what we do, and what we experience, or at least in the stand we take when faced with a situation of unchangeable suffering
The human spirit according to ___ is the will of the human being. The emphasis therefore is on the search for meaning which is not necessarily the search for god or another supernatural being.
purpose in life and meaning in life constructs appeared in his logotherapy with relation to existential vacuum and will to meaning. observed that it may be psychologically damaging when a persons search for meaning is blocked. positive life purpose and meaning was assoicated with strong religious beliefs, membership in groups, dedication to a cause, life values and clear goals. Adult development and maturity emphasizes a clear comprehension of lifes purpose, directeness and intentionality which contributes the feeling that life is meaningful.
___ ideas were operationalized by the PIL (purpose in life) test which measures and individuals meaning and purpose in life.
according to __, we can discover the meaning of life in three different ways
1- by creating a work or doing a deed
2-by experiencing something or encountering someone
3-by the attitude we take toward unavoidable suffering and that everything can be taken from a man but one thing; the last of human freedoms- to choose.
in regards to personality, will to meaning (setting goals and working toward them rather than pursuing a will to power or will o pleasure-both of which are defeating)
A ___ has two extreme points such as 'happy-sad' and we tend to place people at either extreme or at some point in between. Our mind is filled with these ___ as a low level of awareness. Did not use concept of unconscous, instead believed that some ___ are preverbal. A given person or set of persons or any event or circumstance can be characterized fairly precisely by the set of ___ we apply to it and the position of the thing within the range of each ___. (i.e. a person can be half between happy and sad (one construct) and definitevly clever rather than stupid (another construct)
___ are applied to anything we put our attention to, including ourselves, and also strongly influence what we fix our attention to. We construe reality constructing ___. Hence, determining a persons system of constructs would go a long way towards understanding him, especially the persons essential ___ that represent very strong and unchangeable beliefs, and also the ___ a person applies to him or herself.
They are arranged in contrasts as well as in hierarchies. Just as a ___ at a particular level in the hierarchy carries positive implications for certain constructs that are subordinate to it (i.e. good people are also friendly). So each construct carries negative implications for some construct that is opposite to it (i.e. good people are not bad) Thus constructs are more correctly expressed in terms of opposing pairs or polar opposites. one member of the pair is called the emergent construct, while the other is called the contrast. Dichotomization is necessary, some constract is implied in every construct named by the person, even if the person does not (or cannot) express it in words. Unexpressed contrasts are called submerged. Note, as with hierarchical organization, the even when two people give their constructs the same names, the exact nature of the contrast differ from one another. For one person, the opposite of friendly may be hostile, for another disagreeable. Again, the differences in contrast indicate that constructs carrying the same verbal label may differ radically in underlying meaning. Note too that a persons contrast may not match the antonym of the construct as found in the dictionary constructs are personal, and their meanings are not the saem for everyone.
administered in three phases:
2- in the second phase, sets of three roles were selected and the subject was asked to think of an important way in which two of the people were alike, and different from the third, as well as the opposite of that attribute. i.e. a male subject might be given the roles of his mother, girlfriend, and best friend. In response, he might say that his mother and girlfriend are girls while his best friend a man, yielding the construct "woman" and its opposite "man". Alternatively, he might say that he disliked his mother but liked his girlfriend and best friend, yielding the construct like and its contrast dislike. As can be seen, there are numerous ways in which two people can be alike yet different from a third. The important thing is how the individual chooses to solve this problem.
By listing attributes and opposites for even a small number of triads (___ recommended a sample of 15), one can easily get a sense of how the person classifies important people in his life. Consider, i.e., a person who immediately gives the construct male-female (like in ex. above) but has difficulty coming up with a construct when presented with three people from the same gender. for such a person gender is an important personal construct. His personal construct system would seem to be rather monolithic as well; he doesnt think about people except in terms of gende. By contrast, consider a person who gives different construct-contrast pair for each triad presented. Such a person would appear to have a very rich and differentiated personal construct system--in other words, he has many different ways of viewing people
called 'if it werent you'- an example to explain all types of games:
Mrs white complained that her husband severely restricted her social activities, so that she had never learned to dance. Due to changes in her attitude brought about psychiatric treatment, her husband become less sure of himself and more indulgent. Mrs. White was then free to enlarge the scope of her activities. she signed up for dancing classes and then discovered to her dispair she had a morbid fear of dance floors and had to abandon this project
Both mr and mrs white are participating in a game; they are not consciously aware of their active participation. As with any game, at least one party must achieve a payoff for the game to proceed. in this game, mrs white and to a lesser degree mr white achieve their respective payoffs. In Mr. whites case by restricting mrs. whites activities he can retain the role of domineering husband, which provides him comfort when things do not necessarily go his way.
Mrs white obtains her payoff at many levels.on the psychological level, the restrictions imposed by mr. White prevent mrs white from experiencing neurotic fears or being placed in phobic situations. By having Mr. white prevent her from being placed in these situations, mrs. white does not have to acknowledge or even be aware of her fears. On the social level, Mrs. whites payoff is that she can say "if it werent for you". This helps to structure the time she must spend with her husband, as well as the time spent without him. in addition, it allows her to say "if it werent for him" with friends As with any game, it comes to an abrupt end when one player decides (usually unconsciously) to stop playing. If instead, Mr white said 'Go ahead' instead of 'Dont you dare' Mrs. White loses her payoffs. she can no longer say if it werent for you and then must go out and confront her fears. By continuing to play this game, each participant recieves his or her payoff, but the price is a marriage with serious problems.
a state of the ego which is most like an artificial intelligent system processing information and making predictions about major emotions that could affect its operation. Learning to strengthen the ___ is a goal of TA. While a person is in the __ ego state, he/she is directed towards an objective appraisal of reality
these are behaviors, thoughts and feelings which are direct responses to the here and now dealing in ways that are not unhealthily influenced by our past. This ego state is about being spontaneous and aware with the capacity for intimacy. When in our __ we are able to see people as they are, rather than what we project onto them. We ask for information rather than stay scared and rather than make assumptions. Taking the best from our past and using it appropriately in the present is an integration between our our parent and child ego states (=called integrating adult) integrating means that we are constantly updating ourselves through our every day experiences and using this to inform us.
the integrating adult ego state is placed in the middle to show how it needs to orchestrate between the parent and child ego states. i.e. the internal parent ego state may beat up on the internal child saying you are no good, the child may respond with i am no good. an effective integrating adult ego state can intervene between the two other states. This might be done by stating that this kind of parenting isnt helpful and asking if it is prepared to learn antoher way. The integrating adult ego state can just stop the negative dialogue and decide to to develop another positive parent ego state perhaps taken in from other people they have met over the years.
the branch of psychology which concerns itself with the study of human lives and the factors that influence their course which investigates individual differences and types of personality
-essentially it is the study of the person himself
-__ believed that no isolated piece of behavior could every be understood without taking into account the fully functioning person
-___ is simple in structure but complex in detail
claimed there is an Id, Superego and ego just like freuds but believed there are a few differences.

Principles:
1-personality is rooted in the brain, the individuals cerebral physiology guides and governs every aspect of personality. i.e. certain drugs altering the brain, and so the personality. Everything on which personality depends exists in the brain, including feeling states, conscious and unconscious memories, beliefs, attitudes, fears and values
2-idea of tension reduction: agreed with Freud that people act to reduce physiological and psychological tensions, but this does not mean we strive for a tension-free state. It is the process of acting to reduce tension that is satisfying, according to ___, rather than the attainment of a condition free of all tension.
believed that a tension-free existence is itself a source of distress. We need excitement, activity and movement all of which involve increasing rather than decreasing tension. We generate tension in order to have the satisfaction of reducing it. Believed that ideal state of human nature involves always having a certain level of tension to reduce.
3- an individuals personality continues to develop over time and is constructed of all the events that occur during the course of that persons life. Therefore, the study of a persons past is of great importance
4- involves the idea that personality changes and progresses; it is not fixed or static.
5- Emphasized the uniqueness of each person while recognizing similarities among all people. As he saw it, an individual human being is like no other person, like some other people and like every other person
psychoanalytic psychology where the process of developing a psyche in relation to others in the environment during childhood. Based on psychodynamic theory, this theory suggests that the way people relate to others and situations in their adult lives is shaped by family experiences during infancy. i.e. an adult who experienced neglect or abuse in infancy would expect similar behavior from others who remind them of the neglectful or abusive parent from their past. These images of people and events turn into 'objects' in the unconscious that the 'self' carries into adulthood and they are used by the unconscious to predict peoples behavior in their social relationships and interactions
The first object in someone is usually an internalized image of ones mother. internal objects are formed by the patterns in ones experience being taken care of as a baby which may or may not be accurate representations of the actual external caregivers. Objects are usually internalized images of ones mother, father or primary caregiver although they could also consist of parts of a person such as an infant relating to the breast or things in ones inner world. Later experiences can reshape these early patterns, but objects often continue to exert a strong influence throughout life. Objects are initially comprehended in the infant mind by their functions and are termed part objects. the breast that feeds the hungry infant is the "good breast" while a hungry infant that finds no breast is in relation to the 'bad breast'. With 'good enough' facilitating environment, part object functions eventually transform into a comprehension of whole objects. This corresponds with the ability to tolerate ambiguity to see that both the good and bad breast are part of the same mother figure