A psychoanalytic theory that focuses on the ego and says an individual interacts with the external world as well as responds to internal forces.
Believed the ego included innate capacities that facilitated an individuals ability to adapt to his or her environment i.e. perception, attention, memory, concentration, motor coordination and language.
- Under normal conditions called an average expectable environment, these capacities to adapt to the environment developed into ego functions and had autonomy from the libidinal and aggressive drives; that is, they are not products of frustration and conflict as freud believed.
This theory recognized that conflicts were part of the human condition and certain ego functions may become conflicted by aggressive and libidinal impulses, as witnessed by conversion disorders, speech impediments, eating disorder, and ADD.
The theory believes that the task of the ego psychologist is to neurtralize conflicted impulses and expand the conflict-free spheres of ego functions thus facilitating an individuals adaptation to his or her environment.
Belived that the id was not bound to the ego for borrowing its energy. The ego and id are both present at birth and conflicts with the environemnt seperate the id from the ego
the ego is not beholden to the id for borrowing its energy.
A psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages, in which a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood. Each stage builds upon the successful completion of earlier stages and challenges of incomplete stages can be expected to reappear in the future. Stages function as negotiations between biological forces and sociocultural forces.
To ___, the first stage of development is significant not just because of localization of pleasure in the mouth but because in the feeding situation a relationship of trust or mistrust is developed between the infant and the mother. Similarly the anal stage is significant not only for the change in the nature of the major erogenous zone, but also because toilet training is a significant social situation in which the child may develop a sense of autonomy or succumb to shame and self-doubt. In the phallic stage, the child must struggle with the issue of taking pleasure in, as opposed to feeling guilty about, being assertive, competitive and successful.
The latency and genital stages are periods when the individual develops a sense of industry and success or a sense of inferiority and perhaps most important of all a sense of identity or a sense of role diffusion.The crucial task of adolescence is the establishment of a sense of ego identity, an accrued confidence that the way one views oneself has a continuity with ones past and is matched by the perception of others. In contrast to people who develop a sense of identity, people with role diffusion experience the feeling of not really knowing who they are, of not knowing whether what they think they are matches what others think of them, and of not knowing how they have devleoped in this way or where they are heading in the future. During late adolescence and college years, this struggle with a sense of identity may lead to joining a variety of groups and to considerable anguish about the choice of a career. If these issues are not resolved during this time, the individual is later in life filled with a sense of despair. Life is too short and it is too late to start all over again
As human beings we are aware of our seperateness from each other, and seek to overcome it. Love he says is union with somebody or something outside oneself, under the condition of retaining the seperateness and integrity of ones own self. It allows us to transcend our seperateness without denying us our uniquness. The need is so powerful that sometimes we seek it in unhealthy ways. i.e. some seek to eliminate their isolation but submitting themselves to another person, to a group, or their conception of god. Others look to eliminate their isolation by dominating others. Either way, these are not satisfying, your seperateness is not overcome
Another way to attempt to overcome this need is denying it. The opposite is ____- the love of self, is natural in infants in that they done perceive themselves as seperate from the world and other to begin with. But in adults, it is a source of pathology. Like the schizophrenic, the ___ only has one reality- the world of his own thoughts, feelings, and needs. His world becomes what he wants it to be and he loses contact with reality
believes that we all desire to overcome another fact of our being; our sense of being passive creatures. We want to be creatiors, there are many ways to be ___, we give birth, plant seeds, make pots, paint pictures, write books, love eachother. ___ is in fact an expression of love
Unfortunately, some dont find an avenue for ___. Frustrated, they attempt to overcome their passivity by becoming destroyers instead. Destroying puts me above the things or people i destroy. It makes one feel powerful. We can hate as well as love, but in the end it fails to bring us that sense of ____ we need
We also need roots. We need to feel at home in the universe, even though, as human beings, we are somewhat alienated from the natural world. The simplest version is to maintain our ties to our mothers. But to grow up means we have to leave the warmth of our mothers love. To stay would be what __ calls a kind of psychological ___. In order to manage in the difficult world of adulthood, we need to find new, broader roots. We need to discover our brotherhood (And sisterhood) with humanity.
This too has a pathalogical side- i..e. the schizophrenic tries to retreat into a womb-like existence, one where, you may say the umbilical cord has not been cut. There is also the neurotic who is afraid to leave is home, and the fanatic who sees his tribe, country and church as the only good and real one. Everyone else is a dangerous outsider, to be avoided or destroyed
combined Freud and clark Hull.
-Hull maintained that behavior is reinforced by drive reduction (i.e. your hungry, you eat, your reinforced that eating satisfies hunger)
-For ___, learning combines four processes: drive, cue, response, reinforcement. Cue tells you when, where and how to respond. your response is any behavior or sequence of behaviors you perform. Any reinforcement is the consequence of the drive being reduced. If your behavior isnt reinforced, that behavior will be extinguished. But the process doesnt stop there. You keep trying different responses until one of them satisfies the drive. ___ dont explain where the drives come from, they settle for it being a given
In regards to personality, translates psychosexual stages into learning-theory terms. In addition, assume that unconscious conflict, learned for the most part during infancy and childhood, serves as the basis for most severe emotional problems in later life. They agree with psychoanalytic theorists in considering experiences of the first half dozen years of life crucial determinants of adult behavior
refers to the desirability of outcomes of our behavior. Things we want to happen, that we are attracted to have a high ___, things we dont want to happen or we wish to avoid have low. If the likelihood of achieving reinforcement is the same, (expectancies are equal) we will exhibit the behavior with the greatest ___., the one directed toward the outcome we prefer most. The social environment is of primary importance in shaping our behavior- social outcomes such as approval or rejection are powerful influences on our behavior. For people, the most important reinforcers are often social. As with expectancy, ___ is subjective- meaning that the same event or experience can differ in desirability, depending on the individuals life experience. Punishment from a parent would be negatively reinforing to most children and something to be avoided, however children who get little positive attention from parents can seek out parental punishment because it has a higher ___ than neglect.
The value of a given reinforcer is determined in part by other, future reinforcers it may lead to. i.e. doing well on an exam would have heightened __ if you believe that doing well will lead to being able to work in your professors lab. Therefore, even an apparently trivial event can have a very strong ____, either positive or negative if the individual sees it as leading to other strongly valued reinforces
Theory was based on 19 propositions, of these we need to know:
1- the organism has one basic tendency and striving- to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism. have an innate impulse to care for myself, heal and grow.This includes seeking to 1-keep myself safe/ intact and 2- realize my inward potential-become who i am capable of becoming
2- behavior is basically the goal-directed attempt of the organism to satisfy its needs as experienced, in the field as percieved- i behave as i do in order to meet my needs, as i experience and perceive them, and as i experience and perceive reality.
3- emotion accompanies and in general facilitates such goal directed behavior- i am emotionally present in my behavior.My feelings are part of how i attempt to get my perceived needs met. What i feel and how strongly depends on how important the need is to me
4- psychological adjustment exists when the concept of self is such that all sensory and visceral experiences of the organism are, or may be, assimilated on a symbolic level into a consistent relationship with the concept of self-meaning, when i am connected to my own authentic being, i am able to be open to my actual embodied experience in its immediacy and totality and integrate this into how i see myself and my world
5-psychological maladjustment exists when the organism denies awareness of significant sensory and visceral experiences, which consequently are not symbolized and organized into the gestalt of the self structure. when this situation exists, there is a basic or potential psychological tension-when i am disconnected from my own authentic being, i will deny awareness of significant actual embodied experience, so will be unable to make sense of this or integrate it into how i see myself and my world. This will cause deep unease and tension within me
when the individual perceives and accepts into one consistent integrated system all his sensory and visceral experiences, then he is necessarily more understanding others and is more accepting of others as seperate individuals
-There is also an importance in listening to ones feelings: 'listen to your feelings" often their wiser than your intellect (trust in your own thoughts and the accuracy in your feelings)
stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precendence over others. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulfil the next one, and so on. 5 needs (bottom to top)
1- physiological needs (air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex and sleep)
2- safety needs- (protection from elements, security, order, law stability and freedom from fear)
3- belongingness and love needs (freindship, intimacy, affection and love from work group, family, friends and romantic relationships)
4- esteem needs- (prestige and feeling of accomplishment; achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance,self respect and respect from others)
5- self actualization- (achieving ones full potential, including creative activities; realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences)
divides into basic (or deficiency) needs (physiological/safety) and growth needs (love and esteem) which relate to fulfilling our human potential (Self-actualization)
one must satisfy lower level deficit needs before progressing onto meet higher level growth needs; if it is not satisfied the need with grow stronger. Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy towards self-actualization. progress is often disrupted by failure to meet lower level needs, or life experiences (i.e. divorce or loss of job) may cause an individual to fluctuate between the levels. according to __, only one in one hundred people become fully self-actualized because our society rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs
In regards to motivation, __ believed that these needs motivate us (both as a tension-reduction and enhancement activity because of self-actualization, where a person realizes their potential)
the psychological condition in which a person doubts that life has any meaning. This new neurosis is characterized by loss of interest and lack of initiative.
If meaning is what we desire, then meaninglessness is a hole, an emptiness in our lives. Whenever you have a vacuum of course things rush in to fill it. Suggests that the most conspicuous signs of ___ in our society is boredom. He points out how often people, when they finally have time to do what they want, dont seem to want anything. people go into a tailspin when they retire, students get drunk every weekend, and we submerge ourselves in passive entertainment early eveneing (=coined this the sunday neurosis)
So we attempt to fill our __ with stuff that because it provides some satisfaction we hope will provide ultimate satisfaction as well (i.e. eating more than you need, having promiscuous sex, seeking power and monetary success, etc,)
A ___ has two extreme points such as 'happy-sad' and we tend to place people at either extreme or at some point in between. Our mind is filled with these ___ as a low level of awareness. Did not use concept of unconscous, instead believed that some ___ are preverbal. A given person or set of persons or any event or circumstance can be characterized fairly precisely by the set of ___ we apply to it and the position of the thing within the range of each ___. (i.e. a person can be half between happy and sad (one construct) and definitevly clever rather than stupid (another construct)
___ are applied to anything we put our attention to, including ourselves, and also strongly influence what we fix our attention to. We construe reality constructing ___. Hence, determining a persons system of constructs would go a long way towards understanding him, especially the persons essential ___ that represent very strong and unchangeable beliefs, and also the ___ a person applies to him or herself.
They are arranged in contrasts as well as in hierarchies. Just as a ___ at a particular level in the hierarchy carries positive implications for certain constructs that are subordinate to it (i.e. good people are also friendly). So each construct carries negative implications for some construct that is opposite to it (i.e. good people are not bad) Thus constructs are more correctly expressed in terms of opposing pairs or polar opposites. one member of the pair is called the emergent construct, while the other is called the contrast. Dichotomization is necessary, some constract is implied in every construct named by the person, even if the person does not (or cannot) express it in words. Unexpressed contrasts are called submerged. Note, as with hierarchical organization, the even when two people give their constructs the same names, the exact nature of the contrast differ from one another. For one person, the opposite of friendly may be hostile, for another disagreeable. Again, the differences in contrast indicate that constructs carrying the same verbal label may differ radically in underlying meaning. Note too that a persons contrast may not match the antonym of the construct as found in the dictionary constructs are personal, and their meanings are not the saem for everyone.
administered in three phases:
2- in the second phase, sets of three roles were selected and the subject was asked to think of an important way in which two of the people were alike, and different from the third, as well as the opposite of that attribute. i.e. a male subject might be given the roles of his mother, girlfriend, and best friend. In response, he might say that his mother and girlfriend are girls while his best friend a man, yielding the construct "woman" and its opposite "man". Alternatively, he might say that he disliked his mother but liked his girlfriend and best friend, yielding the construct like and its contrast dislike. As can be seen, there are numerous ways in which two people can be alike yet different from a third. The important thing is how the individual chooses to solve this problem.
By listing attributes and opposites for even a small number of triads (___ recommended a sample of 15), one can easily get a sense of how the person classifies important people in his life. Consider, i.e., a person who immediately gives the construct male-female (like in ex. above) but has difficulty coming up with a construct when presented with three people from the same gender. for such a person gender is an important personal construct. His personal construct system would seem to be rather monolithic as well; he doesnt think about people except in terms of gende. By contrast, consider a person who gives different construct-contrast pair for each triad presented. Such a person would appear to have a very rich and differentiated personal construct system--in other words, he has many different ways of viewing people
administered in three phases:
Phase 3- the subject is instructed to rate each role figure from the first part in terms of the degree to which each construct elicited on the second part applies to him or her. Note that this is a rating of relevance, not descriptiveness. When rating a successful person on a construct, i.e., like-dislike, the question is not how much the subject likes that person, rather, the question is whether the subject thinks about that person in terms of liking and disliking. in other words, whether that role-figures falls within the range of convenience of the construct. For the sake of convenience, these ratings are typically made dichotomously; a construct either applies or it doesnt. Intermediate ratings can be made, of course, but such fine judgments are sometimes difficult to make, and difficult to analyze (back then) even if subjects could make them.
called 'if it werent you'- an example to explain all types of games:
Mrs white complained that her husband severely restricted her social activities, so that she had never learned to dance. Due to changes in her attitude brought about psychiatric treatment, her husband become less sure of himself and more indulgent. Mrs. White was then free to enlarge the scope of her activities. she signed up for dancing classes and then discovered to her dispair she had a morbid fear of dance floors and had to abandon this project
Both mr and mrs white are participating in a game; they are not consciously aware of their active participation. As with any game, at least one party must achieve a payoff for the game to proceed. in this game, mrs white and to a lesser degree mr white achieve their respective payoffs. In Mr. whites case by restricting mrs. whites activities he can retain the role of domineering husband, which provides him comfort when things do not necessarily go his way.
Mrs white obtains her payoff at many levels.on the psychological level, the restrictions imposed by mr. White prevent mrs white from experiencing neurotic fears or being placed in phobic situations. By having Mr. white prevent her from being placed in these situations, mrs. white does not have to acknowledge or even be aware of her fears. On the social level, Mrs. whites payoff is that she can say "if it werent for you". This helps to structure the time she must spend with her husband, as well as the time spent without him. in addition, it allows her to say "if it werent for him" with friends As with any game, it comes to an abrupt end when one player decides (usually unconsciously) to stop playing. If instead, Mr white said 'Go ahead' instead of 'Dont you dare' Mrs. White loses her payoffs. she can no longer say if it werent for you and then must go out and confront her fears. By continuing to play this game, each participant recieves his or her payoff, but the price is a marriage with serious problems.
a life plan that may involve long-term involvement in particular games in order to reach the life pay-off of the individual.
is the method of uncovering the early decisions made unconsciously as to how life shall be lived. involves a progression from structural analysis, through transactional and game analysis, to ___.
The purpose is to aid the client to achieve autonomy by recognizing the scripts influence on values, decisions, behaviors, and thereby allowing them to decide against the script. __ describes someone who is autonomous as being script free, and as a real person. For organizations, autonomy is responding to the here and now reality, without discounting the past, the present or possibilities for the future.
At the individual level considers that from the early transactions between mother father and child, a life plan evolves. This is called the script or the unconscious life plan. __ works on the assumption that a persons behavior is partly programmed by the script, the life plan set down in early life. Fortunately, scripts can be changed since they are not inborn but learned. Many of these same people devleloping a life plan start businesses or work into leadership positions in organizations. Owners and CEO's bring with them their life script, and have tremendous influence on the fate of the organization
innate drives or motives, such as sex, hunger, loneliness, pity, fear, curiosity, pride, sensuousness, anger, and greed that all humans share with other primates ___ are characterized by sociability, impulsiveness, jocularty, liveliness, optimism and quick-wittedness while ___are quiet, passive, unsociable, careful, reserved, thoughtful, pessimistic, peaceful, sober and controlled. ))) believes that the principle differences between __and ___ is one of cortical arousal level. (inventive/curious vs consistent/cautious) appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience. __ reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety a person has. It is also described as the extent to which a person is imaginative or independent, and depicts a personal preference for a variety of activities over a strict routine. High ___can be perceived as unpredictability or lack of focus. Moreover, individuals with high ___ are said to pursue self-actualization specifically by seeking out intense, euphoric experiences such as skydiving, living abroad, gambling, etc. Conversely those with low ___ seek to gain fulfillment through perseverance, and are characterized as pragmatic and data driven- sometimes even perceived to be dogmatic and closed-minded. Some disagreement remains about how to interpret and contextualize the ___ factor. the branch of psychology which concerns itself with the study of human lives and the factors that influence their course which investigates individual differences and types of personality
-essentially it is the study of the person himself
-__ believed that no isolated piece of behavior could every be understood without taking into account the fully functioning person
-___ is simple in structure but complex in detail
claimed there is an Id, Superego and ego just like freuds but believed there are a few differences.
1-personality is rooted in the brain, the individuals cerebral physiology guides and governs every aspect of personality. i.e. certain drugs altering the brain, and so the personality. Everything on which personality depends exists in the brain, including feeling states, conscious and unconscious memories, beliefs, attitudes, fears and values
2-idea of tension reduction: agreed with Freud that people act to reduce physiological and psychological tensions, but this does not mean we strive for a tension-free state. It is the process of acting to reduce tension that is satisfying, according to ___, rather than the attainment of a condition free of all tension.
believed that a tension-free existence is itself a source of distress. We need excitement, activity and movement all of which involve increasing rather than decreasing tension. We generate tension in order to have the satisfaction of reducing it. Believed that ideal state of human nature involves always having a certain level of tension to reduce.
3- an individuals personality continues to develop over time and is constructed of all the events that occur during the course of that persons life. Therefore, the study of a persons past is of great importance
4- involves the idea that personality changes and progresses; it is not fixed or static.
5- Emphasized the uniqueness of each person while recognizing similarities among all people. As he saw it, an individual human being is like no other person, like some other people and like every other person
1. Affiliation- to be close and loyal to another person, pleasing them, and winning their friendship and attention
2-Nurturance- to help the helpless, feeling them and keeping them from danger
3- Play- to have fun, laugh and relax, enjoying oneself
4-Rejection- to separate oneself from a negatively viewed object or person, excluding or abandoning
5-Sex- to form rela1onship that lead to sexual intercourse
6-Succourance- to have ones needs satisfied by someone or something, includes being loved, nursed, helped, forgiven and consoled.
1. Positive emotions- entails the study of contentment with the past, happiness in the present and hope for the future
2- Positive character (individual traits) involves the study of strengths, such as the capacity for love and work, courage, compassion, resilience, creativity, curiosity, integrity, self-knowledge, moderation, self-control and wisdom
3- Positive groups (/communities/institutions)-entails the study of strengths that foster better communities, such as justice, responsibility, civility, parenting, nurturance, work ethic, leadership, teamwork, purpose, and tolerance