raven&berg chapter 6

gaia hypothesis
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Terms in this set (87)
nitrificationthe conversion of ammonia to nitrateassimilatethe incorporation of substance into the cells of an organismammonificationthe conversion of biological nitrogen compounds into ammonia and ammonia ionsdenitirficationthe reduction of nitrate to gaseous nitrogenground waterfresh water stored in under ground caverns and porous layers of rocksnitrogen oxidestrace gases in the atmosphere that are produced by chemical interactions between nitrogen and oxygenphotochemical smoga mixture of several air pollutants that can injure plant tissues, irritate eyes, and cause respiratory problems in humansacid dispositionwhen other acids lave the atmosphere they cause the pH of surface waters (lakes and streams) and soils to decreasephosphorous cyclephosphorous, which does not form compounds in the gaseous space and therefor does not enter the atmosphere, cycles from the land to sediments in the ocean and back to the landhydrologic cycleprovides a renewable supply of purified water for terrestrial organisms, results in a balance between water in the ocean, on land, and in the atmospheretranspirationthe loss of water vapor from land plantsestuariesfresh water meets the oceanwater shedthe area of land being drained by runoffrunoffthe movement of water from land to rivers, lakes and ultimately the oceanaerosolstiny particles of air pollution consisting mainly of sulfate, nitrates, carbon, and fly ashalbedothe proportional reflectance of earths surfacetropospherethe layer of the atmosphere closest to the earths surface (10km)e deletedmesospherethe layer of the atmosphere above the stratosphere (45-80km)stratospherethe next layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere extends from 10 - 45 kmthermospherethe atmospheric layer between the mesosphere and the exosphere (extends from 80- 500km)exospherethe layer of the atmosphere that fades into outer space (500 - SPACEEEEEEEEEEE)windscomplex horizontal movements in the atmosphereCoriolis effectthe tendency of moving air or water to be deleted from its path to the right in the northern hemisphere to the southern oneprevailing windsmajor surface winds that blow more or less continuouslypolar easterliesprevailing winds that bow from the NE ear the north pole or the SE near the south polewesterliesprevailing winds that blow from the SW in the Northern Hem. or the NW in the Southern hem.trade windstropical winds that blow from the NE in the northern hemisphere from the SE in the southern hemispherecurrentsprevailing winds blowing over the oceans produce mass movements of surface watergyresthe prevailing winds that generate circular ocean currentsdensitymass per unit volumeel niño southern oscillation (ENSO)periodic warming of the surface watersweatherrefers to the conditions of an atmosphere in a given place or timeclimatcompromise in the average weather conditions that occur in a place over a period of yearsrain showersthe dry land on the side of the mountains away from the prevailing windtornadoa powerful rotating funnel of airtropical cyclonesrotating tropical storms with winds above 120km per hourplate tectonicsthe theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantleplate boundarya place where one tectonic plate ends and another one beginssubductionwhen two plates grind togethermagmamolten rock in the earth's crustlavamagma that reaches the surfacehot spota rising plume of magma from an opening in the crustseismic wavesvibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquakefaultsfracturing of rock followed by the movement of two sides of the fracture relative to one anotherfocusthe site where an earthquake beginsepicenterthe point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquakeasthenosphereupper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithospherecarbon sinkareas of vegetation, especially forests, and the phytoplankton-rich seas that absorb the carbon dioxide produced by the burning of fossil fuelscondensationthe act of increasing the density of somethingconvection currentcurrent in Earth's mantle that transfers heat in earth's interior and is the driving force for plate tectonicsconvergenta boundary where earth's tectonic plates move toward each other. This causes a collision or subduction. This will result in the formation of volcanoes and mountain ranges.coriolis effectthe tendency of moving air or water to be deflected from its path to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Caused by the direction of Earths rotationcrustthe thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantlecurrentsPrevailing winds blowing over the oceans produce mass movements of surface water called currents., water that moves in a certain direction; the river like flow of water in the oceanscyclonesAreas in the atomosphere that have lower pressure than the surrounding areas and has winds that spiral towards the center. (LOW) As the air in the center of a cyclone rises it cools and forms clouds and rain.divergenttending to move apart in different directionsearthquakea shaking or sliding of the ground. It is caused by the sudden movement of masses of rock along a fault or by changes in the size and shape of masses of rock far beneath the earth's surface.evaporationthe process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gashurricanesFormed by warm air from the ocean surface rising rapidly and mixing with the colder air in the atmosphere. The more energy in the atmosphere, the greater the hurricane.inner coreThe solid, inner most layer of the Earth, composed of iron and nickel under extremely high pressure and temperaturejet streama narrow belt of strong winds that blow in the upper tropospherelithospherethe solid, outer layer of the earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantlemantlethe layer of the earth between the crust and the coremid-atlantic ridgeThe spreading of the sea floor in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean as upwelling material forces the plates to move apart.moment magnitude scalea scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquakenitrateany compound containing the nitrate group (such as a salt or ester of nitric acid)outer corethe liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the Mantle and surrounds the inner Coreozone layera layer in the stratosphere (at approximately 20 miles) that contains a concentration of ozone sufficient to block most ultraviolet radiation from the sunPangea(plate tectonics) a hypothetical continent including all the landmass of the earth prior to the Triassic period when it split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland, 250 million years agophotosynthesisthe biochemical process by which green plants and some bacteria capture light energy and use it to produce chemical bonds. Carbon dioxide and water are consumed while oxygen and simple sugars are produced.precipitationAny form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface.Richter scalea scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic wavessulfur cycleCyclic movement of sulfur in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment. Human impacts include the burning of coal and the internal combustion engine, causing sulfuric acid to be emitted into the atmosphere, becoming another component of acid rain.topographythe surface features of a place or region. The topography of a region includes hills, valleys, streams, lakes, bridges, tunnels, and roads.typhoonstropical hurricanes that from over the pacific ocean, often causing floods and landslides. (late summer)water cyclethe constant circulation of water from the sea, through the atmosphere, to the land, and its eventual return to the atmosphere by way of transpiration and evaporation from the land and evaporation from the sea.upwellswhere deeper waters come to the surface. Ocurs in the Pacific along the south American coast. Upwellings provide nutrients for microscopic algae, which in turn support a complex food web. Coastal upwelling weakens considerably during years with El Nino events, temporarily reducing fish populations.