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150 terms

ED Psych exam #2

STUDY
PLAY
We understand new things in the context of things we already know,
and most of what we know is concrete.
Students understand new ideas
by relating them to old ideas
One principle in the usefulness of analogies; they help us understand something new
by relating it to something we already know about.
Understanding new ideas is mostly a matter of getting the right old ideas into working memory and then rearranging them
making comparisons we hadn't before, or thinking about a feature we had previously ignored.
A teacher must ensure that the right ideas from the student's long term memory
are pulled up and put into working memory.
Even when students "understand" there are really degrees of comprehension. One student's understanding can be shallow
while another's is deep.
Even if students understand in the classroom,
this knowledge may not transfer well to the world outside the classroom
Rote knowledge:
You know the information...but you have no understanding of the material
Shallow knowledge:
Students have some understanding of the material but their understanding is limited.If knowledge is shallow...processing stops there
Deep knowledge:
A student with deep knowledge knows more about the subject and the pieces of knowledge are more richly interconnected.
It allows the student to apply the knowledge in many different contexts to talk about it in different ways, to imagine how the system as a whole would change if one part of it changed and so forth.
Students with deep knowledge can predict how the machine would operate if one part were to be changed.
Deep Structure
Deep structure means requiring the same steps for solving a problem.
Our minds assume that new things we read
(or hear) will be related to what we've just read (or heard).
Our cognitive system is always struggling to make sense of what we're reading or hearing to find relevant background knowledge that will
help us interpret the words, phrases, and sentences.
Deep structure of a problem is not obvious.
You must understand how all parts of the problems relate to one another, and you must know which parts are important and which are not.
When a problem has lots of components and lots of steps in its solution,
it more often happens that transfer is hampered by difficulty in mapping from a solved problem to the new one.
Knowledge in the cognitive perspective include both subject-specific understandings
(math, history, soccer)
general cognitive abilities
(planning, solving problems & comprehending language)
Sensory Memory
initial process that transforms incoming stimuli into information
Cognitive Views of Memory
Very large, can take more information than we can handle
Perception and attention are critical
Perception-detecting a stimulus & assigning meaning to it
Attention- selective, one cognitively demanding task at a time
Perception
detecting a stimulus & assigning meaning to it
Attention- selective, one cognitively demanding task at a time
Working Memory -
What you are thinking about at the moment
Short-term memory-immediate memory for new information 15-20 seconds
Working memory Control executive
controls attention the "worker" of working memory
Working memory Phonological loop
Verbal & acoustical information
Working memory Visual Sketchpad
Visual and spatial information
Episodic Buffer
Info from Pholonogical Loop, Visuorspatial sketchpad & long term create representives
Three Kinds of Cognitive Load: Intrinsic Cognitive Load
Unavoidable
Amount of cognitive processing required to figure out the material
Three kinds of cognitive load:Extraneous
Avoidable
Cognitive capacity you use to deal with problems not related to learning the task
Three kinds of cognitive load:
Deep processing of relevant information-organizing & integrating the material with what you already know and forming new understandings
Long-Term Memory:Declarative
(factual information)
General Knowledge- Hours the library is open
Rules of grammar. Domain-Specific Knowledge
The definition of "hypotenuse"
The lines of the poem "The Raven
Long-Term Memory:Procedural
(how to do something)
General Knowledge- How to use your cell phone
How to drive. How to solve an oxidation-reduction equation
How to throw a pot on a potter's wheel
Long-Term Memory: Conditional
(when to do something)
General Knowledge: When to give up and try another approach When to skim & when to read carefully. Domain-Specific Knowledge- When to use the formula for calculating volume.When to rush the net in tennis
Explicit
concious
implicit
unconcious
Long term memory explicit
Episodic Memory (your own experiences)
Semantic Memory (facts, general knowledge)
Long term implicit
Classical conditioning effects (emotional reactions)
Procedural memory (motor skills, habits)
Priming (implicit activation of concepts in long-term memory)
(remembering numbers to tell time)
Episodic Memory
(your own experiences) Memory for information tied to a place, time, events
Semantic Memory
(facts, general knowledge) Memory for meaning - words, facts, theories and concepts
Classical conditioning effects
(emotional reactions)Memories that you are unaware of that make you have a reaction
Procedural memory
(motor skills, habits)Memory for how to perform tasks, skills or habit
Priming
(implicit activation of concepts in long-term memory)
(remembering numbers to tell time)Activation of information that is in long-term memory through out-of-awareness process
Long term- Elaboration
adding meaning to new information by connecting with already existing knowledge
Long term- Organization
structure, tables, chunking
Long term-Imagery
visually & verbally is easiest -dual coding
Long term-Context
physical and emotional context - places, rooms, moods, who is with you- are learned along with other information
Meaningful
make natural use of old information to help students understand new information through examples or analogies
Mnemonics
systematic procedures for improving memory
Rote Memorization
distributed practice gives time for deeper processing and strengthens the connections in the neural network of the brain
Cognitive
rely on declarative knowledge & general problem-solving strategies to accomplish our goal
Associative
individual steps of a procedure are combined or chunked into larger units
Autonomous
whole procedures can be accomplished without much attention
Domain Specific Strategies:
Consciously applied skills that organize thoughts & actions to reach a goal.
Thus your memory is not a product of what you want to remember or what you try to reember,
it's a product of what you think about.
Memory is
the residue of thought
Students remember some things
and forget other things
working memory is
where you keep things"in mind," the location of consciousness.
Information can enter working memory not only from the enviornment but
also from long term memory
Information no longer resides in long term memory
it has been forgotten
Look at pg 55
Look at figure 1
Things that create an emotional reaction will be better remembered
but emotion is not necessary for learning
memory
is the residue of thought
For material to be learned(that ism to end up in long term memory)
it must reside for some period in working memory-that is, a student must pay attention to it.
how the student thinks of the experience
completely determines what will end up in long-term memory
Storytelling is
a powerful tool to use to help students retain information.
The four C's
Causality-events are causally related to one another.
Conflict- a story has a main character pursuing a goal but he or she is unable to reach that goal.
Complications- Sub problems that arise from the main goal.
Character-good stories have strong interesting character.
Causality-
-events are causally related to one another
Conflict-
a story has a main character pursuing a goal but he or she is unable to reach that goal.
Complications
Sub problems that arise from the main goal.
Character
good stories have strong interesting character.
Review Each lesson plan in terms of
what the student is likely to think about
Think Carefully
about attention grabbers
Design Assignments so that students will
unavoidably think about meaning
Don't be afraid
to use Mnemonics(like chanting rhymes of the stage capitals)
People are generally aware of their social class
That it the perceive that some groups are above them in social class and some are below
classism
(like racism and sexism) belieivng thtat tey are "better" than members of lower soical class.
Socioeconomic status SES
Relative standing in society based on income, power background and prestige.
Look at Pg. 212
Table 6.1
Poor students deal with more
stress
Resistance culture
Group values and beliefs about refusing to adopt the behaviors and attitudes of the majority culture.
Tracking
Assignment to different classes and academic experiences based on achievement.
Gender Identity
The sense of self as male or female as well as the belief one has about gender roles and attributes.
Sexual Identetiy
A complex of beliefs about gender roles and sexual oreintations
Gender roles
are expectation of how males and females should behave
Gender schemes
Organized cognitive structures that include gender-related information that influences how children think and behave.
According to the gender schema theory
children and adolescents use gender as an organizing theme to classify and understand their perception about the world.
Gender biases
Different views of males and females often favoring one gender over the other.
Look at pg. 227
Look at figure 6.6
Learning strategies
A special kind of procedural knowledge -knowing how to approach learning tasks.
Look at pg. 322
Table 9.1
Concept maps
A drawing that charts the relationship among ideas.
Production deficiency
Students learn problem-solving strategies, but do not apply them when they could or should
LINCS Vocabulary Strategy
A strategy that uses stories and imagery to help students learn how to identify, organize, define and remember words and their meanings.
Problem
Any situation in which you are trying to reach some goal and must find means to do so.
Problem solving
Creating new solutions for problems
Domain knowledge
knowledge that is particular to field
Creativity
Imaginative, original thinking, or problem solving
Domain-relevant skills
talents and competences that are valuable for working in the domain
Creatively-relevant processes
includes work habits and personality traits such as working 10-hour days to write and rewrite stories
Intrinsic task motivation
deep curiosity and fascination with task
Divergent thinking
Coming up with many possible solutionns
Convergent thinking
Narrowing possibilities to a single answer.
Restructuring
Conceiving of a problem in a new or different way
Insight
Sudden realization of a solution
Divergent thinking
Coming up with many possible solutions
Convergent thinking
Narrowing possibilities to a single answer
Restructuring
Conceiving of a problem in a new or different way
Insight
sudden realization of a solution
Brainstorming
Generating ideas without stopping to evaluate them
Look at pg 343.
Look at guidelines
Transfer
Influence of previously learned material on new material, the production (not reproductive) uses cognitive tools and motivation
Look at pg 347
Table 9.4
Overlearning
Practicing a skill past the point of mastery
Look at pg 350
Look at summary Learning strategies pp.321-328
Look at pg 350
Look at summary Problem solving pp. 328-329
Look at pg 351
Creativity and problem solving pp.339-343
Look at pg 351
Teaching for Transfer pp.346-350
Look at pg. 240
Economic and social class differences pp. 211-216
Look at pg. 240
Gender in teaching and learning pp.224-229
Look at pg. 109
Brofendreener: The social context for develop pp. 75-87
Look pg 161-163
Summary
Greg ponders over his math problem. He looks, frowns, and several minutes passes as he continues to study and shuffle his papers. All at once, he smiles, picks up his pencil, and writes down the correct answer. The suddenness of Greg's solution best exemplifies:
a.)transfer
b.)insight
c.)functional fixedness
problem representation
b.)insight
The main difficulty that occurs when students are too quick to decide what a problems asks is that they may...
become too reflective
a.)experience overgeneralization
b.)activate an inappropriate schema
C.)rely on heuristics instead of algorithms to solve it
activate an inappropriate schema
The main difficulty that occurs when students are too quick to decide what a problems asks is that they may...
a.)become too reflective
b.)experience overgeneralization
c.)activate an inappropriate schema
d.)rely on heuristics instead of algorithms to solve it
c.)activate an inappropriate schema
In order to encourage student creativity, teachers are advised to
a.)work on increasing the speed with which students c.)can identify solutions to a problem
c.)enhance each student's reliance on authorities for response accuracy
d.)promote convergent thinking and problem-solving skills
e.)reinforce unusual solutions, even if the product is not perfect
e.)reinforce unusual solutions, even if the product is not perfect
Expert teachers don't have to think as hard a beginning teachers due to an ability to
a.)recognize patterns in problems
b.)use logical reasoning
c.)memorize many details
d.)access short-term memory
A.) recognize patters in problems
A procedure that is guaranteed to accomplish a particular goal when correctly implemented is called a(n)
a.)algorithm
b.)theorem
c.)heuristic
d.)working-backward strategy
a.) algorithm
Frank was supposed to push three wheelbarrows back to the barn, and he wasn't relishing the idea of three trips. Then in a flash he reorganized the problem. He loaded two wheelbarrows into the third wheelbarrow and made one trip. In doing this he demonstrated
a.)functional fixedness
b.)insight
c.)flexibility
d.)response set
b.) insight
The strategy of solving a crossword puzzle by doing "down" items before "across" items is an example of
a.)top-down processing
b.) heuristic
c.)patterning
d.)metacognition
b.) Heuristic
Learning Latin to improve basic intelligence would possibly be ineffective due to
a.)the impracticality of disciplining mental processes
b.)specific rather than general transferring taking place
c.)the irrelevance of the subject
d.)general rather than specific transferring taking place
b.) specific rather than general transferring taking place
Jennifer had her stomach pumped after she ingested part of an unknown compound in chemistry class. "But at home I always taste things to find out whether they're sugar or salt," she said. Jennifer is a victim of
a.)intuitive thinking
b.)negative transfer
c.)positive transfer
d.)improper coding
b.)negative transfer
Which of the following statements is true?
a.)Children in second grade are too young to engage in self-reflection.
b.)Students' metacognitive skills are fixed because they are aligned to their learning style.
c.)Very young children are better metacognitive thinkers than adolescents.
d.)Metacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved.
d.)Metacognitive knowledge and skills can be learned and improved.
Cheryl gets good grades in her language class but uses incorrect grammar and punctuation in other classes. This situation suggests a problem with
a.)integration
b.)transfer
c.)assimilation
d.)encoding
b.) Transfer
Which one of the following concepts is consistent with the notion of heuristic?
a.)exhaustive
b.)domain specific
c.)analogical thinking
d.)guaranteed solution
c.)analogical thinking
Studies of expertise have discovered that chess masters are superior to non-expert players in
a.)domain knowledge
b.)conscious analytical thought
c.)random chess pattern recognition
d.)recognition of meaningful chess patterns
d.)recognition of meaningful chess patterns
One of the conditions for using good learning strategies is that students must
a.)value and care about learning
b.)have speed of learning
c.)understand that ability is more important than effort
d.)be able to work independently
a.)value and care about learning
Before pulling off the bank job, Bugsy and his gang recited the steps of the operation. "Do we hafta, Bugsy?" complained Willy. "We must have been over them steps fifty times already." Bugsy is aware of the benefits of
a.)overlearning
b.)general transfer
c.)modeling
d.)making learning meaningful
a.)overlearning
Creativity is thought to be associated directly with what type of thinking?
a.)divergent thinking
b.)ntuitive
c.)convergent
d.)deductive reasoning
a.)divergent thinking
Which one of the following illustrates the best example of creative behavior?
A.)Billy uses and established a method to solve an algebraic equation on a test.
B.)Calita uses an encyclopedia to find the significance of the date July 4, 1776.
C.)Cheryl generates a list of solutions for the recycling program.
D.)Jack pours a solution of acid into a beaker of water in the chemistry lab.
C.)Cheryl generates a list of solutions for the recycling program.
Use of the READS method would probably have questionable benefits for
a.)Children in early elementary school
b.)High school students
c)Improving recall of information from the text
d.)Encouraging a distributed practice schedule
a.)Children in early elementary school
Which one of the following is the first step in the KWL reading strategy?
a.)Asking "which information will most likely be on the test?"
b.)Asking "what do I want to know?"
c.)Asking "what do I already know about this subject?"
d.)Asking "what have I been learning?"
c.)Asking "what do I already know about this subject?"
Means-ends analysis in problem solving involves
a.)Distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals
b.)Using analogical reasoning and heuristics
c.)Limiting the search for solutions having something in common with the problem
d.)Beginning at the goal and moving backward to the unsolved initial problem
a.)Distance reduction and dividing a problem into subgoals
Identifying a particular learning style of a given ethnic group:

a.)can become just one more basis for stereotyping.
b.)can help to provide the basis for grouping similar individuals.
c.)helps teachers to prejudge how a student will learn best.
d.)is helpful because every individual in a group shares the same learning style.
can become just one more basis for stereotyping.
When students are in situations that provoke stereotype threat, they tend to:
a,)adopt performance-avoidance goals to avoid feelings of failure.
b.)work harder to disprove the stereotype.
c.)accept that the stereotype is true.
a,)adopt performance-avoidance goals to avoid feelings of failure.
When we listen to music and interpret the sounds or "make meaning of the stimuli," we are engaging in the process of:
a.)perception.
b.)top-down processing.
c.)working memory.
d.)learning.
a.)perception.
Our ability to take in, store, and use information is referred to as:
a.)sensory memory.
b.)information processing.
c.)perception.
d.)bottom-up processing.
b.)information processing.
Archimedes is instructed to determine whether a beautifully crafted crown is composed of pure gold, without cutting the crown. One day, as Archimedes sits down in his bathtub, he notices that, as always, a certain amount of water is displaced. By applying the general schema that "objects of different densities displace different amounts of water," he solves the crown problem. Archimedes' application of his previous knowledge to a new domain might be described most accurately as:

a.)chunking.
b.)dual coding.
c.)elaboration.
d.)limited capacity.
c.)elaboration.
Sam reads a story about a family going to a fast-food restaurant for lunch. The story never mentions that the family members order and pay for their meals at the counter before they sit down. Nevertheless, Sam assumes that they do these things. How can you best explain what Sam does?
a.)Sam has elaborated on the story drawing on a previous script he had constructed about fast-food restaurants
b.)Sam is the victim of reconstruction error.
c.)Sam has a confirmation bias
d.)Sam is using a mnemonic technique.
a.)Sam has elaborated on the story drawing on a previous script he had constructed about fast-food restaurants
Three of the following statements are consistent with the textbook's recommendations for teaching learning and metacognitive strategies. Which statement is not?
a.)Students should have lots of practice applying their new strategies.
b.)Encourage students to become quick at selecting and using appropriate strategies.
c.)Explain how, when, and where to use learning strategies most effectively.
d.)Encourage students to engage in self-monitoring of their strategy use.
b.)Encourage students to become quick at selecting and using appropriate strategies.
A general strategy used in attempting to solve problems is called:
a.)means-end analysis.
b.)a heuristic.
c.)analogical reasoning.
d.)an algorithm.
b.)a heuristic.
In order to facilitate creative thinking, teachers should:
a.)limit fantasy thinking because it is not realistic.
b.)create an autonomous and challenging learning environment.
c.)teach general strategies for increasing creativity.
d.)limit brainstorming activities.
b.)create an autonomous and challenging learning environment.
Critical thinking is defined as:
a.)a broad and complex process of acquiring knowledge and understanding.
b.)evaluating conclusions by systematically and logically examining the problem, evidence, and solution.
c.)making connections between the information in different texts and noting similarities and contradictions.
d.)the situation when something previously learned influences current learning or when solving an earlier problem affects how you solve a new problem.
b.)evaluating conclusions by systematically and logically examining the problem, evidence, and solution.