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US History Chapter 5 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (46)
Governments in which people elect their representatives
Idea that government should be based on the consent of the people
One with a single house, whose members were elected by the people
A lawmaking body with two houses a Senate and a House
Articles of Confederation
The first form of government within the United States (drafted in the Continental Congress in 1777) set up as a league or alliance of states that agree to work together. The Articles was a loose confederation of the 13 states(weak form of government), rather than a strong and centralized nation.
National government that consisted of a Congress of delegates, chosen by state legislatures rather than by voters
Land Ordinance of 1785
A system devised by Congress and designed for dispensing,distributing, or managing (surveying the land) the public lands in the Northwest Territory.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
(Government for the western territory) law which provided a basis for governing the Northwest Territory
(Daniel Shay) an attempt by a group of indebted farmers to secure weapons from a Federal Armory, became the catalyst (primary reason) for the United States to recognize the need for a new constitution. After Shay's rebellion, the leaders realized that without the ability to tax the central government could not repair the national economy.
Delegate from Virginia who took the best notes at the Constitutional Convention later he was called the "Father of the Constitution" for his
leadership at the Constitutional Convention. He also devised the Virginia plan that proposed a bicameral legislature with representation based upon population.
Delegate from New Jersey who developed the New Jersey Plan which favored the small states in representation. The New Jersey plan gave Congress equal representation for all states regardless of a state's population. Also,states had no power to veto laws.
Delegate from Connecticut who reached a compromise between the Virginia plan and the New Jersey plan known as the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise. It called for a two house legislature which benefits the small and large states. The Senate would equally represent every state, regardless of size, allowing 2 per state. The House of Representatives would represent population granting more power to the larger states
It helped to "save" the United States Constitution by settling the dispute between the Virginia Plan (large states) and the New Jersey plan (small states); a compromise at the Constitutional Convention calling for a two-house legislature, with one house elected on the basis of population and the other
representing each state equally
Political system in which power is shared between the national and state governments. Usually separates/divides power between the national and state governments.
Three- Fifths Compromise
A compromise in which each enslaved person would be counted as three-fifths a person for the purpose of legislative representation.This meant for every five slaves only three would count the same for a white person in representation.The Southern states favored this compromise because they had more slaves and wanted more representation in government.
One who favored ratification of the Constitution.The group included members such as George Washington, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.They stressed the weakness of the Articles and felt the Constitution would provide a balance of a strong national government with controlled power
One who favored a strong state government and opposed a strong national government due to fear of a return to kingly power. The group consisted of Samuel Adams, John Hancock, George Clinton, Richard Henry Lee, and Patrick Henry. They required the protection of personal liberties (the Bill of Rights) in order to balance the US Constitution.
The Federalists, a series of 85 essays written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay that explained and defended the US Constitution; it was used to sway the anti-federalists approval of the US Constitution. The documents explain the benefits of a union between states.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution; written
as a list of freedoms guaranteed to citizens by the government, a protection of citizens personal liberties. They were ratified in 1789 as promised by the Federalists
to encourage Anti-Federalists support of the US Constitution
United States Constitution
A plan of government that describes the different parts of the government and their duties and powers, established in 1787; it is the living document that governs our country today
The principle in which the people are the only source of government power (people's vote).
The principle stating that the government has only as much authority as the people give it and therefore, its power is limited (consent of the govern).
Separation of Powers
A key principle for the government that divides power among the three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. Each branch has their own specific power/job.
Article Two of the US Constitution, this branch is responsible for executing/enforcing the laws; it consists of the President, Vice President, and Cabinet.
Article One of the US Constitution, this branch is responsible for making the laws; it consists of the bi-cameral congress: Senate (upper house) and House of Representative (lower house).
Article Three of the US Constitution, this branch is responsible for interpreting the laws; it consists of the US Supreme Court (9 Justices—1 Chief Justice and 8 Associate Justices).
Checks and Balances
A guiding principle in the US Constitution that are to ensure no one branch can become too powerful; it is to monitor the actions and limit the powers of the branches—two of the three branches have to agree.
A group of persons chosen from each state to indirectly elect the President and Vice President of the United States; usually made up of members in the House of Representatives and Senate.
House of Representatives
Members of the Congress considered the lower house elected by people of their state; based on population—number equals 435; must be at least 25 yrs. old, serve 2 yr. terms; terms unlimited; also known as the "people house"—vote for people.
Members of the Congress
considered the upper house elected by people of their state; based on equality—number equals 2 per state (100); must be at least 30 yrs. old, serve 6 yr. terms, terms unlimited; has authority to put individual on trial,"voice of public opinion".
The official removal of a public official; accusation against a public official of wrongdoing in office.
Members of the Judicial branch, which includes nine justices (1 Chief Justice and 8 Associate Justices), they serve for a lifetime; appointed by the President and confirmed/approved by Congress (Senate).
The Supreme Court has the power to review acts of the federal government and to cancel any acts that are unconstitutional, or violate a provision in the Constitution.
Changes to the US Constitution; total 27
No Chief Executive
Did not want to have another powerful executive like a King.
Laws needed approval by 9 of 13 states
Wanted to protect individual states' power.
No Executive Branch
Fear of a strong central government.
Congress did not have the power to tax citizens.
Fear of being unfairly taxed as they had been under British rule.
No National Court system
Could not settle disputes between states.
Any amendment (changes) to the Articles must be approved by all 13 states.
Wanted to make sure states had a strong say in shaping the new government.
Congress could not draft an army.
Left the country vulnerable without a dependable military force.
Congress could not collect state debts owed to the federal government
Federal government often did not have funds necessary to operate effectively.
No Judicial Branch
Disputes between states often could not be settled fairly.
Each state functioned as an independent nation.
Created disunity among states.
State laws varied from state to state
Weak central government but Strong state governments.
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