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34 terms

A & P I Chapter 9 Part 2

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thin
troponin is part of the ______ myofilament.
ATP, H2O, and CO2
list the 3 by-products of aerobic metabolism.
thick; thin
smooth muscle has more ______ filaments than _____ filaments.
multiunit smooth muscle
which muscle type has only one nucleus, no sarcomeres, and rare gap junctions?
gene
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin _____. Without a normal copy of DNA for transcription, there can never be a normal protein translated.
dehydration synthesis
What is the type of chemical reaction used to rebuild ADP into ATP?
pyruvic
during the "rest & recovery" stage, when oxygen is available, lactic acid is converted back to _______ acid.
white fast twitch fibers
Which type of muscle fiber has a large quantity of glycogen and mainly uses glycolysis to synthesize ATP?
terminal cisternae
The ________ ________ are the enlarged ends of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
thick
_______ filaments are composed of myosin.
stress-relaxation response
What special feature of smooth muscle allows it to stretch without immediately resulting in a strong contraction?
fasicles
Skeletal muscle cells are grouped into bundles called __________.
acetylcholine
Synaptic vesicles at the neuromuscular junction contain __________.
sarcolemma
ACh receptors are found mainly in the __________.
chemically gated Na+-K+ channels
Acetylcholine receptors are best characterized as what type of channel?
the difference between the amount of oxygen needed for totally aerobic muscle activity and the amount actually used
What does excess postexercise oxygen consumption represent?
electrical; chemical; electrical
generating and AP on the muscle membrane involves the transfer of info from an _________ signal (down the neuron), to a ________ signal (at the NMJ), back to an ________ signal (depolarization of the sarcolemma).
true
TRUE or FALSE: high precision muscles (voice box, eye, fingers) have fewer muscle fibers per neuron.
true
TRUE or FALSE: a muscle fiber must fully contract. It cannot partially contract.
true
TRUE or FALSE: when a single motor unit is recruited to contract, all the muscle fibers in that motor unit must all contract at the same time.
refractory
temporary loss of excitability is called the ________ period.
twitch
a _______ is recorded when a stimulus that results in contraction (force) of a single muscle fiber is measured over a very brief millisecond time frame.
frequency; strength
response to stimulation are graded by ________ and ______.
spinal reflexes
what upkeeps muscle tone?
isotonic
in _________ contractions the load is moved.
concentric
picking up a book is an example of a ________ contraction.
eccentric
lowering a book is an example of a __________ contraction.
isometric
the example of dr. foster trying to lift the podium is an example of a ________ contraction.
36
aerobic respiration produces how many ATP per molecule of glucose.
1.) stored glycogen 2.) blood glucose 3.) pyruvic acid 4.) fatty acids
list the fuels of the aerobic pathway and in what order they are used.
true
TRUE or FALSE: muscle glycogen is only for muscle. It can't be taken from muscle when you're starving.
ionic; SR
the physiological inability to contract can be caused by _____ imbalances and damages to the _____.
true
TRUE or FALSE: the majority of energy (60%) given off by muscle is released as heat
autorythmic
smooth muscle is __________ meaning it is under involuntary control.