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AP Human Geography Unit 1 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (51)
The space in which daily activity occurs
A map projection where directions from a central point are preserved; usually these projections also have radial symmetry
map in which some thematic mapping variable is substituted for land area (e.g., GDP)
a map that shows differences by using color or shading
The geographic study of the multiple interactions of human-environmental relationships
Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group. This is the essence of how humans interact with nature. (built environment)
Direction (absolute, relative)
Relative direction- Directions such as left, right, forward, backward, up, and down based on people's perception of places
Absolute Direction- A compass direction such as north or south.
Distance (absolute, relative)
Absolute distance: Exact measurement of the physical space between two places.
Relative distance: Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places.
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
the misrepresentation of shape, area, distance, or direction of or between geographic features when compared to their true measurements on the curved surface of the earth.
the way in which something is shared out among a group or spread over an area.
one dot represents a certain number of phenomena (e.g., population)
A 19th- and early 20th-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities (e.g., Jared Diamond - Guns, Germs, and Steel)
Equator (0° Latitude)
an imaginary line drawn around the earth equally distant from both poles, dividing the earth into northern and southern hemispheres and constituting the parallel of latitude 0°.
The spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process...
-Hierarchical diffusion: The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places (Ex: hip-hop/rap music)
-Contagious diffusion: The rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population. (Ex: ideas placed on the internet)
-Stimulus diffusion: the spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. (Ex: PC & Apple competition, p40)
Five Themes of Geography
-location: position; situation of people and things
-human/environmental interaction: reciprocal relationship b/w humans & env.
-region: area on Earth's surface marked by a degree of homogeneity (uniformity) of some phenomenon
-place: uniqueness of a location (or similarity of two or more locales); phenomena within an area
-movement: mobility of people, goods and ideas; phenomena between areas
homogenous region is an area within which everyone shares in common one or mare distinctive characteristics. The shared feature could be a cultural value such as a common language, or an environmental climate
Friction of Distance
a measure of the retarding or restricting effect of distance on spatial interaction; the greater the distance, the greater the "friction" and the less the interaction or exchange, or the greater the cost of achieving the exchange.
Area organized around a node or focal point. The characteristic chosen to define a functional region dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward. This region is tied to the central point by transportation or communication systems or by economic or functional associations
Geographic Information System (GIS)
collection of computer hardware and software permitting spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, used, and displayed.
Geospatial data (census, satellite)
information that identifies the geographic location and characteristics of natural or constructed features and boundaries on the earth.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places.
process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.
The region from which innovative ideas originate. This relates to the important concept of the spreading of ideas from one area to another (diffusion).
Hearth Independent Invention
A trait with many hearths that developed independent of each other
International date line (180° Longitude)
an imaginary line that goes north and south through the Pacific Ocean, one day is on the east side of the line and the following day is on the west side.
a map with continuous lines joining points of the same value.
The angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude, or parallels.
Location (absolute, relative)
Relative location: Position on Earth's surface relative to other features. (Ex: My house is east of I-75).
Absolute location: Position on Earth's surface using the coordinate system of longitude (that runs from North to South Pole) and latitude (that runs parallel to the equator).
The angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude, or meridians.
The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface.
Map projection with straight meridians and parallels that intersect at right angles, used for marine navigation
North/South poles (90°N or S)
The points farthest north and south on the Earth along its axis.
Pattison's Four Traditions
-earth-science: physical geography (not one of the Five Themes)
-locational: spatial tradition (location)
-man-land: human/environmental interaction
-area-studies: regional geography
is a place that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity. Such regions emerge from people's informal sense of place rather than from scientific models developed through geographic thought. (Often identified using a mental map- which is an internal representation of a portion of Earths surface). Many "belts" fit this description ... cotton belt (what used to be dominated by agriculture, and is often referred to as the New South), Bible belt, sun belt, rust belt,
maps that their primary purpose is to show landforms like deserts, mountains and plains. Their topography style (or relief) presents an overall better picture of the local terrain.
azimuthal projection drawn to show Arctic and Antarctic areas.
Area of inquiry fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political- economic arrangements and understandings
Maps that are designed to show governmental boundaries of countries, states and counties. They can also indicate the location of major cities, and they usually include significant bodies of water
The physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment.
Prime Meridian (0° Longitude)
An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0 degree line of longitude
generalized map type designed to show general spatial properties of features (e.g., world maps, road maps, atlas maps)
method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g., satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
map projection that distorts shape, area, scale, and distance in an attempt to balance the errors of projection properties
representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization; represented as a fraction (large scale= large detail, small area; small scale = small detain, large area)
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape. This is an important concept in geography because it symbolizes how humans interact with their surroundings
Site: The physical character of place; what is found at the location and why it is significant.
Situation: The location of a place relative to other places
How something is laid out; space on Earth's surface.
made to reflect a particular theme about a geographic area (e.g., geographic, topographic, political, ...)
new time zone for every 15 degrees west/ 24 time zones/ allows time to follow with rotation of earth ex: noon- when sun is highest in the sky
The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.
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