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Terms in this set (24)

*He is writing against the philosophers/writers of the enlightenment

•DEFENSE OF TRADTION (CHURCH) in terms of studying how people are embedded in categorical systems of thoughts/actions languages
*the way you are thinking is shaped by the categories of language you are using

•Spirit/generous of a people/culture (Very Holistic)

•tied to understandings of ways of thinking, inferiority, as well as the influence of place and environment
*people are effected by their environment

•cannot just walk away from tradition in any easy sense that Kant speaks about becoming mature and "thinking for oneself"

*Culture as a whole (Holistic) comes from Herders fits into Boas (American) and Malinowski (British) Anthropology

• (Respect and understanding) Radical differences in ways of thinking between historical periods and cultures

•Focus on what we might call everyday history and not history regimes & military battles (battles of great man and their spirit)

•Look at art, literature of a people to understand them and history and less history of the great

•Herder has a complicated view of historical change and what could be considered progress (He does not like simplistic (reductionistic) theory of the enlightement idea. Its the fantasy of the human being a brain and an eye)

Enlightenment is mechanical (people see progress but really its only technological advancement)

•Civilization in opposition to tradition & to idea of the primitive or savage

•Civilization as a goal and a teleology
•An opposite of civilization can be tradion or religious authority
•Idea of progress
•Can become enlightened
•An opposite of civilization can be the category of the savage, state of nature
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)- *interested in how organisms changed
• Argued that organisms were affected by their environment, and evolved by adapting to it

• Adaptations were caused by the use and disuse of particular body parts given the changing demands of environment

• The theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics

Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772 -1844)
• Expanded and defended Lamarck's evolutionary theories

• The environment causes a direct induction of organic change

Charles Darwin (1809 -1882)- *studies domesticated species and Wallace looked at the natural species
• Evolution was already on the table - but HOW does it happens?

• Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823 -1913) identified a plausible MECHANISM for biological evolution and collected plenty of data to illustrate it.

• Darwin and Wallace disagreed on the existence of analogies between Natural selection and Artificial selection.

•"The Origin of species by means of natural selection", 1869 NATURAL SELECTION Happens when VARIATION exists and is HERITABLE Extreme COMPETITION for resources (food, water, territory - anything for survival) Better competitors leave more offspring with their particular variation

•"Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex", 1871 SEXUAL SELECTION Happens when the resource is SEX Intersexual selection - Persuading the opposite sex Intrasexual selection - Competing with your own sex
*Because of the peacock

*Two people/articles who argue adaptations is problematic and to simple of an idea.

The Spandrels of San Marcos—Gould and Lewontin--biologists
In fact, we should look at the whole organism. They make fun of stories (speculative) of change out there using adaptation as the main player
eg Spandrels purpose cannot be explained independent from their structure.

Nonadaptive Processes in Primate and Human Evolution—Harris--biologist
*underestimating the importance of non-adaptive evolutionary processes: random genetic drift and mutation. hree fundamental effects: a relative relaxation of selective constraints (i.e., purifying selection), a relative increase in the fixation of slightly deleterious mutations, and a general reduction in the efficacy of positive selection."