In addition to an efferent motor system, the ANS also uses sensory fibers to function as a __________?
The ANS maintenance of the internal environment in response to changes in the internal and external environment is known as?
cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands
General Visceral Efferent neurons provide motor innervation to?
skeletal muscle derived from branchiomeres
Special Visceral Efferent neurons provide voluntary motor innervation to?
pain and distension from mucous membranes, glands, blood vessels
General Visceral Afferent neurons deliver sensory information regarding?
olfactory and gustation
Special Visceral Afferent neurons deliver sensory information from what areas?
In the basic organization of the ANS, the parasympathetic division is found in what area?
pre-ganglionic axons in the sympathetic division are (short/long), While the post-ganglionic axons are (short,long)?
pre-ganglionic axons in the parasympathetic division are (short/long), while the post-ganglionic axons are (short/long)?
1st neuron (preganglionic cell) located in the CNS and terminates in a ganglion in the periphery. 2nd neuron (postganglionic cell) located in the PNS
Describe the Two Neuron System?
diffuse, non-discrete way
Axon terminals end in varicosities, with no distinct neuromuscular junction. This causes the neurotransmitter to be released how?
cranial nerve nuclei and sacral spinal cord S2-S4
Preganglionic parasympathetic neuron cell bodies are found where?
Regulates activity of tissues/organs such as sweat glands and smooth muscle of blood vessels/hair follicles
What is the function of the sympathetic division of the ANS?
promote production of energy for muscular work and shut down organs
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are designed to do what?
increase in HR, BP and force of ventricular contraction
What effect does the sympathetic division have on cardiac muscle?
dilate or constrict, depending on function
What effect does the sympathetic division have on blood vessels?
slow deactivation of norepinephrine, systemic distribution of nor/epinephrine, considerable degree of divergence/convergence
The sympathetic division exerts its influences over widespread body regions for sustained periods of time due to?
What conveys preganglionic fibers from the ventral rami to the paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic chains in the sympathetic division?
bilateral series of interconnected ganglia running from the skull to the coccyx that connects to ventral rami of spinal nerves
Synapse with postganglionic cells in the paravertebral ganglia
Sympathetic Preganglionic axons have 3 possible terminations. The first is?
continue through paravertebral ganglia without synapsing, contributing to a splanchnic nerve, then synapsing with postganglionic cells in a prevertebral ganglia.
Sympathetic Preganglionic axons have 3 possible terminations. The second is?
continue through paravertebral chain without synapsing, contribute to splanchnic nerve, pass through celiac ganglion to adrenal medulla, synapse with chromaffin cells
Sympathetic Preganglionic axons have 3 possible terminations. the third is?
release epinephrine and norepinephrine into the circulatory system
What is the function of chromaffin cells?
spinal nerves or cervical and thoracic cardiac/pulmonary nerves
What are the two possible destinations for sympathetic postganglionic neurons?
blood vessels, glands and arrector pili muscles in the body wall and extremities
sympathetic postganglionic fibers contributing to spinal nerves supply what?
vascular smooth muscle of the esophagus, heart and lungs
cervical and thoracic cardiac/pulmonary nerves supply what structures?
What structures supply the same visceral targets as the corresponding branch of the aorta?
What conveys preganglionic fibers from the paravertebral ganglia to the prevertebral ganglia?
inferior cervical, C7-8
What ganglia innervates the esophagus, lungs and heart? Fusion of which ganglia?
acetylcholine + 1 or more peptides
What is the neurotransmitter used between preganglionic to postganglionic neurons?
cholinergic nicotinic (fast EPSPs) and Peptide (slow EPSPs)
What are the two receptors between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons?
metabolic breakdown of acetylcholinesterase
re-uptake of the neurotransmitter between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons is done through what?
what is the neurotransmitter used between postganglionic nuerons and the target location in the sympathetic division?
conservation/restoration of body resources
what is the primary function of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
viscera of the head and body cavities
What is the main target of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
no, blood vessels in the face
does the parasympathetic division innervate viscera in the bodywall and limbs? What is the exception?
CN 3, 7, 9 10
What cranial nerves supply GVE innervation to the head, thorax and most abdominal viscera?
3 sacral spinal nerves
GVE innervation to the rest of the abdomen and pelvic viscera is done by what?
rapid reuptake of acetylcholine, limited divergence, preganglionic to postganglionic ratio 1:1
What allows parasympathetic division to respond to a specific stimulus in localized and descrete regions for short durations?
ciliary muscles for lens accomodation, sphincter pupillae for pupil constriction
What are the targets and effects of the postganglionic axon from CN 3?
glands of the nose and palate, lacrimal gland
What are the targets of the postganglionic axon from CN 7?
submandibular, sublingual and other small glands of the oral cavity
What are the targets of postganglionic axons coming from the submandibular ganglion?
increase secretion of parotid gland
What is the target and function of postganglionic axons from CN 9?
dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and nucleus ambiguus
What are the preganglionic cell bodies for CN 10?
heart and great vessels, respiratory system, GI tract
What are the target tissues for postganglionic axons of CN 10?
decrease HR, bronchial constriction, increase blood flow to gut, increase peristalsis and secretion
What are the effects of the postganglionic axons of CN 10?
acetylcholine + 1 or more peptides
What is the neurotransmitter used between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division?
Cholinergic nicotinic receptors (fast EPSPs) and peptide receptors (slow EPSPs)
What are the receptors between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division?
metabolic breakdown by acetylcholinesterase
Re-uptake of the neurotransmitter between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division is done by what?
acetylcholine + 1 or more peptides
What is the neurotransmitter used between postganglionic neurons and the target in the parasympathetic division?
cholinergic muscarinic receptors
What are the receptors used between postganglionic neurons and the target in the parasympathetic division?