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Terms in this set (145)
Process by which living things use food to obtain nutrients for energy, growth and development and maintenance
Biochemical substances that can only be supplied in adequate amounts from sources outside a living organism; usually, the outside source is food
to make nutrients in food available to the body
: to deliver the nutrients to cells of the body for energy, growth, development and maintenance
waste products (what body doesn't need) from the body
provide energy, build and maintain body tissues, regulate body processes
Carbs and fats
build and maintain body tissues and regulate body processes
Vitamins and minerals
build and maintain body tissues and regulate body processes; most important nutrient
are a revised set of nutrient-based reference values
dietary references intake (DRIs)
Amount of nutrients estimated to meet needs of half of healthy individuals in specific age and gender group
Estimated average requirements (EAR)
Sufficient amount of nutrients to meet requirements of nearly all (97% to 98%) healthy individuals
Provides a generous margin of safety
Recommended dietary allowances
Maximum daily level of nutrient intake that probably will not cause adverse health or toxic effects for most individuals
Tolerable Upper Intake level
Food Labels must include
Trans fats (Canada first country to include)
three-dimensional atomic arrangement of biomolecules
Bonds formed between positively charged metal ions and negatively charged nonmetal ions
bonds between nonmetals
-electrons equally shared between two nonmetals
loss of electrons
gain of electrons
creates a new molecule by forming a bond between 2 smaller molecules
breaks a larger molecule into 2 smaller molecules
what are the major classes of biochemicals ?
_____________ function in energy metabolism and storage
examples of carbs ?
______________ function in providing structure, muscle contraction, transporting and storing substances, catalyzing reactions, regulating metabolism and providing protection
_________ involved in energy metabolism and storage; structural membranes, insulation and protection and act as hormones
_____________ function to catalyze all biochemical reactions; beginning digestive processes
_________ function to store & transfer genetic information
__________ is how cells acquire, transform, store & use energy
What is a major energy source ?
degradation of carbohydrates
Where does carbohydrate metabolism occur ?
What are exampled of hormone regulators ?
Insulin - too high
Glucagon - too low
Epinephrine- fight and flight
what provides amino acids for synthesis of new proteins ?
Protein provide _____________ for synthesis of new proteins
-required enzymes: ________
Metabolism produces more energy then ______ and _____
-enzymes for digestion include: _____
Carbohydrates and proteins
Chemical actions reduce foods to ____________
___________ are complex proteins that enable metabolic reactions to proceed at a __________ rate without being exhausted themselves
_____________ break up and mix foods, permitting better blending with the chemicals, ie. chewing & ___________
What 3 sensory perceptions are food choices influenced by ?
Sight Smell Taste
What is the "port of entry" where receptors for the sense of taste or taste buds are located ?
The oral cavity
How many cells do taste buds consist of ?
30 to 100 cells
Where are taste buds found ?
Soft palate, epiglottis, larynx, and posterior wall of the pharynx
True or False. Smaller food pieces provide more surface area for digestive enzymes to function
What contains mucus that causes food to stick together in a bolus ?
What ist he function of salivary amylase ?
Allows large molecule carbohydrates, which are not fermentable by plaque acids, to be hydrolyzed into shorter chains that are fermentable
Describe the process once food is being swallowed
The bolus passes back to the pharynx under voluntary control (voluntarily), after passing through it then becomes involuntary actions.
What action moves the food from the throat to the stomach ?
Stomach Secretions: what do chief cells produce ?
What do parietal cells release and why ?
HCL to make gastric contents acidic
What two secretions work together to begin the hydrolysis of protein ?
Pepsinogen and HCl
What helps to digest short- and medium-chain fatty acids ?
How fast does the stomach empty ?
in 1 to 4 hrs depending on amount and types of food eaten
What stimulates the release of pancreatic enzymes ?
Acidic chyme from stomach
Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase: __________
Pancreatic enzymes amylase
What does microvilli in intestinal wall produce ?
Lactase, sucrase and maltase: CHOs
Aminopeptidase and dipeptidase: proteins
What does bile produced by the liver and stores in the gallbladder aid in ?
Emulsification of fats
What is the principle site for nutrient absorption ?
How long is the transportation time for small intestines ?
3 to 10 hours
engulfing of small drops of intestinal contents
What is the process in which fluid travels in small intestines ?
True or False. the main function of the large intestine is reabsorption of water and electrolytes while forming and storing feces until defecation
Process of excretion:
Dental Consideration: Over an extended time, chronic problems with vomiting or reflux can result in sensitive teeth and superficial or deep tooth erosion, especially on lingual and occlusal surfaces- dentinal pooling
A patient who has a gastric bypass removes the lower portion of the _____ and much of the ___________ and ________.
What ist he structural protein component of grain (wheat, rye and barley) ?
What are the conditions related to the ingestion of gluten have become a concern to health care providers ?
An autoimmune disorder(celiac disease)
Allergic reactions to wheat
Immune-mediated disorder or gluten sensitivity
What is an auto-immune disorder (antibodies to one's own tissues) caused by a permanent sensitivity to gluten in genetically-susceptible individuals ?
Where can the following be found:
Glucose - fruits and veggies
Fructose - fruits and veggies
Galactose - lactose
Monosaccharides are _________. Simplest carbs, monosaccharides are absorbed without further _____ .
Disaccharides are composed of _____ simple sugars. Disaccharides cannot be _________ by the body, but they contribute to _____________ after they have been digested.
two simple sugars
What disaccharides are composed in milk ?
Lactose (glucose + galactose)
What disaccharides are composed in beer and cereals ?
Maltose (glucose + glucose)
What disaccharides are composed in cane, beet, maple sugar, fruits, vegetables ?
Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
What is the only CHO that is anticariogenic ?
What are 5 nonnutritive sweeteners with intense sweetening power that have FDA approval ?
Polysaccharides contain more than ____ monosaccharides
Examples of polysaccharides ?
Starch: grains, legumes and potatoes
What ist he physiological role of CHO ?
Provides energy and glucose is preferred fuel - 4kcal/g
Required for oxidation of fats
Required for components needed for development of collagen and nervous tissue
Glycogen stores are a readily available source of glucose for the tissues
Excesses stored as fat
What is the RDA of carbohydrate ?
Examples of sources of fiber ?
whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits and low-fat dairy
What is the recommended fiber intake ?
Men 19-50= 38g/day
Women 19-50= 25g/day
Sources of fiber ?
Milk, whole grains, fruit vegetables (potatoes, beets, corn, peas), legumes, added sugars
True or False. Excess carbs intake may result in energy imbalance and weight gain
What is the cause of obesity ?
NOT SUGAR - excess intake of calories whether from CHO, protein, fat or alcohol
____________ promotes the volume and growth rate of plaque biofilm.
Sucrose (metabolism of sucrose by bacteria lowers the pH, leading to decalcification)
Cariogenicity of CHO is most affected by what ?
Frequency of consumption
Form of CHO (liquid, sticky, solid)
When should cariogenic foods be eaten ?
with a meal
How many different types of amino acids are there ?
What is the range of amino acid assigned to each protein ?
100 - 300
the fundamental part of the amino acid that varies to form different amino acids
The radical group
What type of peptide bond does food and body proteins contain ?
What is the major source of animal protein ?
Beef - major source
chicken and fish
What are building blocks of proteins ?
__________________ amino acids are manufactured by the body in adequate amounts
Nonessential Amino Acids
_______________ amino acids are not manufactures by the body in adequate amounts or are not made by the body
Essential Amino Acids
What are the 3 classifications of protein foods ?
a) High quality (high biological value)
b) Lower quality (intermediate biological value)
c) Low quality (low biological value)
Where does protein digestion occur ?
stomach and then in small intestines
High quality protein/Complete protein provides __ essential amino acids in adequate amounts to sustain optimal growth, maintenance and repair (generally from animal sources—_______, fish, _____, eggs) and maintains nitrogen balance
Lower quality (intermediate biological value) contains __ EAA, however one or more of the EAAs is/are insufficient to support optimum ____________. eg. legumes nuts and grains
Incomplete protein (low-quality protein) is missing __ or more EAAs required for growth eg. legumes, _______, veggies)
True or False. Nitrogen Balance: Helathy individuals excrete (in fees, urine and from skin) higher amount of protein than consumed
Same amount of protein as consumed
What is the physiological role of protein ?
Generation of new body tissues
Repair of body tissues- ongoing cell repair
Production of essential compounds
Regulation of fluid balance-maintains blood volume
Resistance to disease
Protein provides ______ although it is not a main function of protein.
What is the RDA for protein ?
what is the recommendation for dairy group intake for children ? boy and girls ?
What is a type of protein energy malnutrition ?
affects 18 to 24 months old
True or False. Excess Intakes of protein may result in fluid imbalance
What are many high protein diets high in ? and what does it cause
fat, saturated fat, cholesterol
causes increase risk of CVD and cancers
What type of vegetarian diets only include plant foods and nothing else.
What should Vegans eat to maintain health ?
complementary proteins and increase quantities
What type of vegetarian diets only include plant food and dairy products ?
Which type of vegetarian diets only include plant food, dairy products and eggs ?
Which type of vegetarian diets only include plant foods and eggs ?
Which type of vegetarian diets only avoid red meat ?
Which type of vegetarian diets eat only fruits ?
What is the recommended protein intake ?
10% to 35% of caloric intake
Where can simple lipids be found ?
In foods and in the body
where are structural lipids produced ?
by the body
Simple lipids -- saturated fatty acids contain _______ bonds. Primarily found in ______ products (meat and dairy). Implicated in causing _____ in total cholesterol and LDL(low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, causing an ___ risk for CVD
Simple Lipids- Monosaturated fatty acids -- primarily in ______ foods (olive oil, canola oil, peanuts, pecans, almods, avocados). ______ HDL(high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, which has a protective effect for CVD
Simple Lipids- Trans fatty acids -- found in ______, dairy, margarine, shortening, salty snacks. high intake results in _______ total cholesterol levels and ______.
a commercial process in which vegetable oil is converted to a solid margarine or shortening by adding hydrogen to the oil
The hydrogenation process not only increases the proportion of ____________________ but also changes the __________________
saturated fatty acids
shape of the fatty acid
What is the purpose of hydrogenation ?
Increases shelf life and prevents spoilage by adding antioxidants which prevent oxidation and decomposition of fat
What happens when the hydrogen atoms are rotated so that they are on opposite sides of the bond ?
Trans fatty acids ?
What does partial hydrogenation result in ?
Large number of fatty acids having this altered shape
How many bonds do polyunsaturated fats have ?
True or False. Linoleic acid can be synthesized by the body
Cannot be synthesized by the body
What are some deficiency symptoms of linoleic acids ?
growth retardation, skin lesions and reproductive failure
Is linoleic acid considered an essential or non essential fatty acid ?
Essential fatty acid
What provide the most linoleic acid ? food sources ?
Safflower, soybean and corn oils provide
flaxseed, canola and soybean oils, soybeans, walnuts, flaxseed and wheat germ
What is provided from seafood, including fatty fish like mackerel, Atlantic salmon and albacore tuna and fish oils ?
Long chain omega 3-fatty acids
What is the most widely distributed phospholipids-additive in commercial products to prevent decomposition of fat ?
are lipoproteins that transport triglycerides and cholesterol from the small intestine to other tissues
what transports insoluble fats in the blood ?
What produces lipoproteins ?
Liver and intestinal mucosa
what transports cholesterol in the blood ?
A waxy, fat-like substance; soluble compound; found only in animal tissues
What mainly produces all the cholesterol the body needs ?
Concentrated source of energy
Aids absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
Adipose tissue serves as an energy reserve
Cushions vital organs
Provides insulation and maintains body temperature
What is the dietary requirement for fat ?
total fat 20% to 35% of energy intake
AI for linolenic acid ? Linoleic acid ?
1.1 to 1.6 g/day
12 to 17 g/day
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