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Literary and Linguistic Toolkit
Terms in this set (33)
A distinctive manner of pronunciation that marks a regional or social identity
The level of formality, intimacy, deference, equality and authority with which people speak to each other. It usually marks such things as status, role, age, gender, social class, ethnic difference, inclusion or exclusion. For example: 'mum', 'sir', 'madam speaker', 'you lot'.
A term relating to the structure of spoken language, indicating a sequence of utterance that form a recognizable structure. Adjacency pairs follow each other, are produced by different speaks, have a logical connection, and conform to a pattern. Questions and answers, commands and response, greetings and response form adjacency pairs, e.g. A: Hurry up. B: I'll be out in a minute.; A: Are you well? B: Very well thank you.
A word that describes a noun - e.g. the wooden table; the red balloon. They can also indicate degree, e.g. the tallest girl was the slowest. Adjectives are also sometimes know as modifiers.
A word that describes the action of a verb - e.g. the cat jumped swiftly; the boy ate hungrily. Adverbs are also sometimes know as modifiers. Adverbs can also act as intensifiers - e.g. the man became very angry.
A story or a narrative, often told at some length, which has a deeper meaning below the surface. The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan is a well-known allegory. A more modern example is George Orwell's Animal Farm, which on a surface level is about a group of animals who take over their farm, but on a deeper level is an allegory of the Russian revolution and the shortcomings of Communism.
The repetition of the same consonant sound, especially at the beginning of words. For example, "Five miles meandering with a mazy motion" (Kubla Khan by S.T. Coleridge).
A reference to another event, person, place or work of literature. The allusion is usually implied rather than explicit, and often provides another layer of meaning to what is being said.
Use of language where the meaning is unclear or has tow or more possible interpretations. It could be created through a weakness in the writer's expression, but often it is deliberately used by writers to create layers of meaning in the mind of the reader.
The situation where more than one possible attitude is being displayed by the writer towards a character, theme or idea etc.
Something that is historically inaccurate - for example, the reference to a clock chiming in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. The Romans did not have chiming clocks.
A form of referencing in which a pronoun or noun phrase points back to something mentioned earlier - e.g. the party was a great success and it was enjoyed by everyone.
A character or force against which another character struggles. Creon is Antigone's antagonist in Sophocles' play Antigone; Teiresias is the antagonist of Oedipus in Sophocles' Oedipus the King
Contrasting ideas or words that are balanced against each other, e.g. "To be or not to be" (Hamlet by William Shakespeare)
Words that are opposite in meaning (dark/light, fast/slow
Use of language that is old-fashioned - words or phrases that are not completely obsolete, but no longer in current usage.
The repetition of similar vowel sounds in a sentence or a line of poetry or prose. For example, "there must be Gods thrown down and trumpets blown" (Hyperion by John Keats). This shows the paired assonance of must, trum and thrown, blown.
The mood or pervasive feeling insinuated by a literary work.
A particular stance or viewpoint adopted by a writer or speaker.
A love lyric in which the speaker complains about the arrival of the dawn, when he must part from his lover. John Donne's "The Sun Rising" exemplifies this poetic genre.
The people addressed by a piece of writing, speech etc. This is closely associated with the idea of purpose. Language (either written or spoken) is used in various kinds of ways depending on the audience that it is aimed at and the purpose that it is designed to achieve.
A co-operative signal that provides feedback to the speaker to maintain the conversation e.g. 'mm', 'right'.
Interrupting what you are saying in order to introduce further information that maybe would have made more sense at an earlier point.
A narrative poem that tells a story (traditional ballads were songs) usually characterized by swift action and narrated in a direct style. The theme is often tragic or contains a whimsical, supernatural or fantastical element.
Alexander Pope describes bathos as a poet's fall, in a work of some seriousness, into an unintentionally comic pathos.
Language used in such a way as to express a prejudice against someone or something, or which favours a particular point of view.
Unrhymed poetry that adheres to a strict pattern in that each line is an iambic pentameter (a ten-syllable line with five stresses). It is close to the natural rhythm of English speech or prose and is used a great deal by many writers, including Shakespeare and Milton.
A conscious break in a line of poetry, e.g. "Fix'd were their habits: they arose betimes,/ Then pray'd their hour, and sang their party rhymes" (Thomas Crabbe).
A character described through the exaggeration of the features that he or she possesses.
A purging of emotions such as takes place at the end of a tragedy.
The linking together of adjacency pairs to form a conversation.
An imaginary person that inhabits a literary work. Literary characters may be major or minor, static (unchanging) or dynamic (capable of change). In Shakespeare's Othello, Desdemona is a major character, but one who is static, like the minor character Bianca. Othello is a major character who is dynamic, exhibiting an ability to change.
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