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APUSH Test Chapter 1
Terms in this set (101)
the form of political society that combines centralized government with a high degree of ethnic and cultural unity
the form of society in which family line, power, and wealth are passed primarily through the female side
an alliance or league of nations or peoples looser than a federation
concerning the earliest origin of things
a lengthy story or poem recounting the great deeds and adventures of a people and their heroes
in trading systems, those dealers who operate between the original buyers and the retail merchants who sell to consumers
a small vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails
a large-scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor
a naturally evolved network of relations among organisms in a stable environment
concerning the general characteristics of a given population, including such factors as numbers, age, gender, birth, and death rates
a Spanish conqueror or adventurer in the Americas
an economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets
the Spanish labor system in which persons were held to unpaid service under the permanent control of their masters, though not legally owned
a person of mixed Native American and European ancestry
a medium-sized subunit of territory and governmental administration within a larger nation or empire
What shaped North America?
the ice age
How did people originally get to the Americas?
walked across the Bering strait
What were early Indian civilizations built on?
advanced agricultural practices
How did Indians live?
in small, semi-nomadic agricultural and hunting communities
What did many Indian cultures, like the Iroquois, trace through the female side?
descent, power, possessions and wealth
Who were the first Europeans to set foot in the Americas?
Why did Europeans go on voyages?
to look for a less expensive route to Asian goods and markets
What began as a result of the Spanish conquest of the Atlantic Sugar Islands?
When Columbus landed in the Americas where did he think he was?
the Indies; he eventually realized that he had "found" a new continent
What was the greatest effect of the European intrusion of the Indians?
most of the Indians were killed
What fueled inflation in Europe?
Spanish gold and silver from the new world
Did conquistadors mingle with the Indians?
Who first settled New Mexico?
Spanish colonizers from the North
Why did Spain expand its empire into Florida and New Mexico?
partly to block French and English intrusions
Was the English or Spanish empire in the new world more powerful and longer lasting?
What are the oldest mountains in North America?
Indians of the new world
divided into many diverse cultures speaking more than two thousand different languages
What important Indian products made it back to the old world?
maize, beans, and tomatoes
When did the Iroquois confederacy break apart?
the American Revolution
What stimulated European interest in trade and discovery?
Christian crusaders who brought back a taste for the silks and spices and Asia
What were the staples of Indian agriculture?
Maize, beans, and squash
How many Indians were in the New world when Columbus arrived?
about 4 million
Who were the first Europeans in the New world?
the Norse Vikings
The Portuguese were the first to do what?
enter slave trade in the Atlantic Sugar islands and establish large-scale plantations?
What fueled Spanish exploration?
voyages of discovery along the Coast of Africa
What political development paved the way for European colonization of the Americas?
the rise of centralized national monarchies such as that of Spain
Why did Indian Population greatly decline after contact with the Europeans?
the Indians were not resistant to the European diseases
How did Cortes conquer Tenochtitlan so easily?
the Aztec ruler Montezuma believed that Cortes was a god whose return had been predicted
Who mainly competed with Spain in the New world?
the belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good
the extended period when glaciers covered most of the North American continent
the staple crop that formed the economic foundation of Indian civilizations
Important mississipian culture site, near present East St. Louis, Illinois
first European nation to send explorers around the west coast of Africa
flourishing West African kingdom that had its capital and university at Timbuktu
the mistaken term that European explorers gave to American lands because of the false belief that they were off the coast of Africa
animal introduced bu Europeans that transformed the Indian way of life on the Great Plains
small pox and malaria
major diseases that devastated Native American population after 1492
the disease that originated in Americas that was transmitted to Europeans after 1492
Treaty of Tordesillas
the treaty that secured Spanish title to lands in Americas by dividing them with Portugal
wealthy capital of the Aztec empire
Indian uprising in New Mexico caused by Spanish efforts to suppress Indian religion
the Indian people of the Rio Grande Valley who were cruelly oppressed by the Spanish conquerors
Roman catholic religious order of friars that organized a chain of missions in California
Ferdinand and Isabella
Financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus's voyages to the New World
Cortes and Pizarro
Spanish conquerers of great Indian civilizations
Inland sea left by melting glaciers whose remnant is the Great Salt Lake
Dias and da Gama
Portuguese navigators who sailed around the African coast
Italian-born explorer who thought that he had arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on unknown continents
female Indian slave who served as interpreter for Cortes
Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors
Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy
Wealthy Capital of the Aztec empire
founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the US territory
Italian born navigator sent by English to explore North American coast in 1498
Franciscan missionary who settled California
Cause: The Great Ice Age
Effect: Exposure of a land bridge between Asia and North America
Cause: Cultivation of Corn (Maize)
Effect: The Formation of a chain of mission settlements in California
Cause: New Sailing Technology and desire for spices
Effect: European voyages around Africa and across the Atlantic attempting to reach Asia
Cause: Portugal's creation of sugar plantations on Atlantic coastal islands
Effect: the rapid expansion of the African slave trade
Cause: Columbus's first encounter with the new world
Effect: a global exchange of animals, plants, and diseases
Cause: Native Americans' lack of immunity to smallpox, malaria, and yellow fever
Effect: A decline of 90% in the new world indian population
Cause: The Spanish conquest of large quantities of new world gold and silver
Effect: Rapid expansion of global economic commerce and manufacturing
Cause: Aztec legends of a returning god, Quetzalcoatl
Effect: Cortes relatively easy conquest of Tenochtitlan
Cause: The Spanish need to protect Mexico against French and English encroachment
Effect: Establishment of Spanish settlements in Florida and New Mexico
Cause: Franciscan friars' desire to convert Pacific coast Indians to Catholicism
Effect: Formation of a chain of mission settlements in California
What are the major mountain chains that border the mid-continental basin drained by the Mississippi River System?
Appalachians and Rockies
What geological event explains the formation of lakes and river systems?
How did the glaciers melting isolate people in the Americas from where they came?
the water level rose and covered the land bridge
What happened in 1607?
Jamestown was founded
Who was the first explorer to reach the pacific ocean?
Where were the Aztecs located?
Where were the Incas located?
Where were the Mayans located?
Where were the Pueblos located?
the Rio Grande Valley
Who are the Norse Vikings?
the first Europeans to actually discover the Americas
What mountains formed first?
What mountains formed after the Appalachians?
Rockies and Sierra Nevadas
Which tribes had the highest Population density in America?
Cherokee, Choctaw, and Creek
What made the old route to Asia so expensive?
Muslim and Italian middlemen
What was Columbus's goal?
to reach the East by Sailing West
What was the Conquistadors motto?
God, Gold, and Glory
circles the globe
Ponce De Leon
looks for fountain of youth in Florida
conquers Aztecs in Mexico easily
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