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Dominion of New England

The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros

Jonathan Edwards

American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)

Leisler's Rebellion

militia captain Jacob Leisler seized control of lower New York during Britain's "Glorious Revolution"; reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority was restored

Albany Plan of Union

early attempt at forming a union of the colonies during the French and Indian War. Colonies rejected it because they didn't want to surrender their authority.

Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father; respected in Europe; secured the French alliance that helped to make independence of the United States possible.

Treaty of Paris (1763)-

signed on 10 February 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. It ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.


An interpretation of Puritan beliefs that stressed God's gift of salvation and minimized what an individual could do to gain salvation; identified with Anne Hutchinson.

Enumerated articles

Under the English navigation Acts, those commodities that could be shipped only to England or other English colonies; originally included sugar, tobacco, cotton, and indigo.

First Great Awakening

Religious revival movement during the 1730s and 1740s; its leaders were George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards; religious pluralism was promoted by the idea that all Protestant denominations were legitimate.


Economic policy that held that the strength of a nation is based on the amount of gold and silver it has; also, that the country needs a favorable balance of trade and that colonies exist for the good of the mother country as a source of raw materials and a market for manufactured goods

Proclamation of 1763

reduced tensions with Native Americans as a result of Pontiac's Rebellion; forbade white settlement west of the Appalachians; outraged colonists

Paxton Boys

Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachians that wanted protection from Indian attacks; marched on Philadelphia; influenced the Regulator Movement

North and South Carolina Regulators

organized effort by backcountry settlers to restore law and order and establish institutions of local government

Letters of a Farmer in Pennsylvania

- essays written by John Dickinson; acknowledged Parliament's power but said that the colonies were sovereign in their internal affairs; taxes for raising revenue were unconstitutional

Samuel Adams-

revolutionary resistance leader who headed the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts; involved in the Committees of Correspondence, the First and Second Continental Congress, and the signing of the DofI

Sons of Liberty

- radical political organization for colonial independence that was formed after the Stamp Act; rioted and burned customs houses

Gaspee incident

protest of the enforcement of Navigation Acts, residents of Rhode Island boarded Gaspee (Brit ship) and sank it, no trial in US - sent to England

Boston Massacre

British attempted to enforce the Townshend Acts and killed five Bostonians

circular letter

- letters sent between colonies to keep underground groups informed of events in other colonies

Committees of Correspondence

First established in Boston in 1772, the committees became a way for the colonies to state and communicate their grievances against Great Britain.

Thomas Jefferson

Virginian, architect, author, second governor of Virginia, and third president. Wrote the Declaration of Independence

Patrick Henry

- revolutionary orator, statesman, and a member of the House of Burgesses; introduced seven resolutions against the Stamp Act; "Give me liberty or give me death"

Continental Association

Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods in order to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts

Lexington & Concord

Militia and Royal infantry fought in Lexington and the colonial troops withdrew; Concord was suspected by British General Gage of housing a stockpile of colonial weaponry. Paul Revere and William Dawes detected movement of British troops.


American troops captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British and gained 50 cannons; raised morale and made French join war

Olive Branch Petition

Pledge of loyalty to King George III but asked Britain to respect the rights/liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and remove British troops; George declared colonies in rebellion

Bunker Hill-

American post overlooking Boston allowed the Americans to contain General Gage and his troops and turn back British frontal assault; overrun when no more ammunition; strengthened American morale

Benedict Arnold

US general and traitor in the Revolution; plan to surrender West Point was foiled


British tried to split the colonies along the Hudson River, but failed to mobilize properly and surrendered; first great American victory and a turning point that brought French aid to the colonists

Treaty of Alliance (1778 )

created a defensive alliance between France and the U.S.


British captured this place and the Americans and French allies unsuccessfully attempted to retake it; second bloodiest battle of the Revolution


British under Cornwallis surrendered the war after a siege by American and French troops

General Cornwallis-

Led British forces during the American Revolution and surrendered at Yorktown

Treaty of Paris (1783)-

Peace settlement that ended the Revolutionary War. The U.S. was represented by Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay. Britain recognized the US' independence and outlined its borders

Land Ordinance of 1785-.

Congress organized the distribution of Western land into townships, and the sale of land provided federal revenue

Northwest Ordinance

created five states north of the Ohio River that would be admitted to the Union when free inhabitants reached 60,000; slavery not allowed. Set a precedent for how states could join the Union.

Robert Walpole

Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister; His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.

Salutary neglect

British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II; relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureaucrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government

Committees of Correspondence

First established in Boston in 1772, the committees became a way for the colonies to state and communicate their grievances against Great Britain.

Critical Period

Term used by historians to describe the United States under the Articles of Confederation.

Direct tax

British-imposed tax directly on the colonies that was intended to raise revenue; the Stamp act was the first attempt by Parliament to impose this on the colonies.

Indirect tax

A measure that ra ised revenue through the regulation of trade--the Sugar Act, for example.


Also known as Tories, the term refers to those Americans who remained loyal to Great Britain during the Revolution.

Natural rights

Those rights that the Enlightenment (and Jefferson's Declaration) saw as inherent for all humans and that government is not justified in violating.

Non-importation agreements

A form of protest against British policies; colonial merchants refused to import British goods.

Virtual representation

The British argument that the American colonies were represented in Parliament, since the members of Parliament represented all Englishmen in the empire.

Whig ideology

Idea that concentrated power leads to corruption and tyranny; emphasis on balanced government where legislatures check the power of the executive.

Writs of Assistance

General search warrants employed by Britain in an effort to prevent smuggling in the American colonies.

"No taxation without representation"

The assertion that Great Britain had no right to tax the American colonies as long as they did not have their own representatives in the British Parliament.

Imperial System

British empire based on mercantilism- English persuaded that costs of empire building would be offset by the profits, empires way to gain wealth & power to previal against other nations, way to regulate and controll all trade to max exports and min imports

Glorious Revolution

Bloodless overthrow of King James II that ended the Dominion and established William and Mary as the new leaders.

George I

(1714-1727) The first monarch of the House of Hanover came to the throne when his 2nd cousin Anne died. There were 50 other Catholics who were more directly in line to the throne, but the Act of Settlement of 1701 prohibited the ascension of any Catholics to the British throne. During his reign the powers of the monarchy diminished and Britain began a transition to a modern system of cabinet government led by a prime minister.

George II

(1727-1760) This son of George I was the last British monarch to have been born outside of Great Britain. He was famous for his many conflicts with his father, and he supported his fathers political opponents including Sir Robert Walpole. He was the last British monarch to lead an army in battle.

Robert Walpole

Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)

Seven Years War/French Indian War

Conflict between French and English settlers in North America helped ignite a long war that changed the colonial balance of power. British victory led to undisputed control of North America east of the Mississippi River while also forcing France to surrender most of its holdings in India.

Iroquois Confederacy

Group of 5 Indian tribes that formed defensive alliance; traded with French but especially British while avoiding close relations with both groups; sided with British in French and Indian War.

King Williams War

1689 First of Anglo- French Conflicts between France and England fought for land control mostly fought on borders of New England and New York

Queen Anne's War

The second of Anglo- French Conflicts known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats in most of their military operations in North America.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713, ended Queen Ann's War, transferred large areas of French territory in North America to English including Nova Scotia and Newfoundland

King George's War

1744 and 1748. England and Spain were in conflict with French. New England captured French Bastion at Louisburg on Cape Brenton Island. Had to abandon it once peace treaty ended conflict.

Ft Necessity

The fort which George Washington built in the Ohio Valley to protect the English from the French.


Leader of the French who ordered a chain of french forts. Name of the fort in the Ohio Valley to protect the English from the French

William Pitt

British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.

Peace of Paris

This ended the Seven Years War/French and Indian war between Britain and her allies and France and her allies. The result was the acquisition of all land east of the Mississippi plus Canada for Britain, and the removal of the French from mainland North America.

George III

King of England during the American Revolution; wished to keep the Americans as a loyal colony; instituted many taxes on the colonists to boost revenue for England

George Grenville

British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament

Mutiny Act 1765

Made colonists provide food, shelter, and other supplies to maintain the British soldiers permanently stationed in America.(Quarting)

Paxton Boys

Vengeful Pennsylvania frontiersmen who in protest of a perceived lack of frontier protection massacred local Indian tribes.

Battle of Alamance 1771

the regulator movment had great momentum, the regulators dispersed and made North Carolina dependent of the British

Stamp Act 1765

Required that revenue stamps be placed on almost all printed paper. First direct tax paid by the people.
Boycotts were effective in repealing this Act.

Patrick Henry

Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech

Virginia Resolves

In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies. Known as the Virginia Resolves, these resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions.

Stamp Act Congress

A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act. It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.

Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

Thomas Hutchinson

believed the tea tax was unjust, but disagreed that the colonists had a right to rebel. He angered Bostons radicals when he ordered the tea ships not to clear the Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargoes

Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.

Charles Townshend

Charles Townshend was control of the British ministry and was nicknamed "Champagne Charley" for his brilliant speeches in Parliament while drunk. He persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts. These new regulations was a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, and tea. It was a tax that the colonist were greatly against and was a near start for rebellions to take place.

Townshend Duties

Popularly referred to as the Townshend Duties, the Revenue Act of 1767 taxed glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea entering the colonies. The colonists objected to the fact that the act was clearly designed to raise revenue exclusively for England rather than to regulate trade in a manner favorable to the entire British empire.

Circular Letter

A letter circulated in 1767 in reaction to the Townshend Act. It urged colonists to jointly sign a petition of protest and was influential in causing colonists to work together against the British.

Lord North

Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.

Captain Thomas Preston

At the Boston Massacre, accused of commanding the soldiers to fire

Crispus Attacks

former slave and first death in the American Revolution

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

Samuel Adams

Samuel Adams played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Adams was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..

Committee of Correspondence

Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.

John Dickinson

Philadelphia lawyer who protested the Townshend Acts in his twelve Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer, arguing that Parliament might regulate commerce and collect duties incidental to that purpose, but it had no right to levy taxes for revenue, whether they were internal or external.

Letter of a Pennsylvania farmer

is a series of essays written by the Pennsylvania lawyer and legislator John Dickinson, were written in protest to the passage of the Townshend Duties.

Virtual representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members.

Tea "Parties"

protestors that dumped tea into Boston Harbor because of tax on tea

Coercive Acts

This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes.

Quebec Act

This act gave French Quebec more land, they were guaranteed their Catholic religion, and they could keep their original customs. Many Americans were nervous of the Catholic presence in Quebec, the land being taken away from some of them, and set a dangerous precedent in America against jury trials and popular assemblies that not weren't allowed in Quebec.

Edenton Tea Party

The Edenton Tea Party was one of the earliest organized women's political actions in United States history. On October 25, 1774, Mrs. Penelope Barker organized, at the home of Mrs. Elizabeth King, fifty-one women in Edenton, North Carolina. Together they formed an alliance wholeheartedly supporting the American cause against "taxation without representation."
Group of prominent North Carolina women who signed a pledge to work for the common good and to support colonial resistance to British measures. One of the earliest organized efforts on the part of women to influence public policy.

First Continental Congress

Meeting of representatives from every colony except Georgia held in Philadelphia in 1774 to discuss actions to take in response to the Intolerable Acts

Continental Association

Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees of Vigilance in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts.

Conciliatory Propositions

propositions made by Lord North, and approved by parliament, they said that the colonies would tax themselves at Parliament's demand, believing it would separate American moderates, who believed in the views of the majority, not the extremist minority, but they came too late as the war had already begun.

John Hancock

"King of the Smugglers." A wealthy Boston merchant who defied the mercantilist system and the Navigation Acts. He was one of the leaders of the Sons of Liberty. He was a leader in the plot to store gunpowder in Lexington and Concord. He was the President of the Continental Congress at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and was the first to sign the Declaration. He signed it really big and made the comment, "So Fat George in London can read it without his spectacles!"

Lexington and Concord

April 8, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)

Second Continental Congress

They organized the Continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence

John Adams

A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.

Richard Henry Lee

Richard Henry Lee was a member of the Philadelphia Congress during the late 1770's. On June 7, 1776 he declared, "These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states." This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.

Olive Branch Petition

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

Declaration of Causes & Necessity of Taking Up Arms

a document prepared by the Second Continental Congress to explain to the world why the British colonies had taken up arms against Great Britain. It is a combination of the work of Thomas Jefferson and Colonel John Dickinson


German mercenaries that were hired by the British for putting down the rebellion of the colonies. The hiring of these men showed to the colonists that the British had only military action in mind as a solution to the current problems.

Prohibitory Act

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

Common Sense

A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

Thomas Paine

Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man

Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

John Locke's Contract Theory

1. People possessed natural rights of life, liberty, and property. 2. Governments are created solely to protect these rights. 3. People have the right and responsibility to reform if not satisfied


American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence


The Tories were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution. another name for Loyalists

Articles of Confederation

this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage

George Washington

Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799).

Conway Cabal

A series of events in 1777 and 1778 which suggested that George Washington be replaced as commander of the Continental Army. Started when a Brigadier General of the Continental Army sent letters to the Continental Congress which criticized and expressed discontent with Washington. Washington's reputation was relatively unharmed by this, and it was the only major political threat to Washington during the Revolutionary War.

Valley Forge

Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops

de Lafayette

19 year old French noble who became a major general in the colonial army

von Stueben

German, largely resposible for triaining the Continental Army

Bunker Hill

a battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.

Breed Hill

The Hill that most of the Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on

William Howe

English General who commanded the English forces at Bunker Hill. He did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning, and he found more agreeable the bedtime company of his mistress. At a time when it seemed obvious that he should join the forces in New York, he joined the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia.

Evactuation Day

after being surrounded by gw and his troops, britiain leaves to nova scotia

Benedict Arnold

American General who was labeled a traitor when he assisted the British in a failed attempt to take the American fort at West Point.

battle of trenton (Christmas 1777 "raid")

December 25th. Washington crosses Delaware River and takes advantage of he Hessains because they were celebrating Christmas. He takes the Hessains by surprise and its a victory for the Continental Army.

Johnny Burgoyne

the British general who surrendered at the 1777 Battle Of Saratoga after Howe ignored battle plans and took Philadelphia rather than capturing the Hudson river

Ft. Ticonderoga

built around lake champlain in ny. Built by the French during the French and Indian wars. Captured by the british then taken back by Americans and again to british. Surrendered by Washington


British tried to split the colonies along the Hudson River, but failed to mobilize properly and surrendered; first great American victory and a turning point that brought French aid to the colonists

Joseph & Mary Brandt

Both Mohawks, Joseph a celebrated warrior, and mary the magnetic widow of Sir William Johnson expand the native american role in the war.

King Louis XVI

King of France from 1774 to 1792; he was unpopular for taxes that he imparted on his people, was king at the beginning of the French Revolution, was deposed by the National Convention and guillotined.

de Vergennes

French foreign minister who fashioned the alliance with the North American colonists that helped them throw off British rule in the American Revolution; at the same time, he worked, with considerable success, to establish a stable balance of power in Europe.

George Rogers Clark

Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America

Francis Marion

South Carolina militia leader nicknamed the "Swamp Fox" for his hit-and-run attacks on the British during the American Revolution.

Nathanael Greene

Nathanael Greene was a colonial general who fought the English in the late eighteenth century-- used fighting tactic of retreating and getting the English to pursue for miles. Historical Significance: Cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops.

King's Mountain & Cowpens

2 valuable military battles the colonists won in the South under the colonial leaders Green and Morgan

de Rochambeau

commanded French Army that arrived in Newport, Rhode Island in 1780; one of the first French armies to be sent to America for the Revolutionary War (made up of six thousand troops); he and his army accompanied Washington by land to Yorktown (where Cornwallis surrendered)

de Grasse

French Naval Commander, blocked Chesapeake Bay to defeat Cornwallis in Battle of Yorktown

Treaty of Paris 1783

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River

revolution's Effects on religious groups


Lord Dunmore's War

War between Virginians and the Shawnee and Mingo Indians in 1774. The two forces met at Point Pleasant on the Virginia side of the Ohio River, and the Indians were defeated. During the peace conference that followed, Virginia gained uncontested rights to lands south of the Ohio in exchange for its claims on the northern side.

Cheif Dragging Canoe

Cherokee chief that launched a series of attacks on white settlements in the summer of 1776 because of the way they were being treated. It ended up turning around on him and making him and his people flee to Tennessee.

Gnadenhuetten "massacre"

March 8, 1782 approximately ninety-six Moravian Indians were brutally massacred by local militia from western Pennsylvania because of neutrality in war.

Molly Pitcher

heroine of the American Revolution who carried water to soldiers during the Battle of Monmouth Court House and took over her husband's gun when he was overcome by heat (1754-1932)

Judith Sargent Murray

well educated daughter of wealthy massachusetts merchant. Wrote "On Equality of the Sexes". She argued men and woman had an equal capacity for memory and women had a superior imagination. She concluded that most women were inferior to men in judgement and reasoning, but only bc they had not been trained.

Nancy Hart

legendary war woman of the American Revolution; her most famous account was her tricking and killing of a group of Tories.


ships that are privately owned but are urged to attack enemy ships during a war


a person who owns his or her land but paid a yearly fee to the lord of the manor.

State Constitutions

During the war, most states had their own const. to spell out the rights of citizens and set limits on the gvns. power.

Property requirements

Must own property to vote
Assumed only ownership of land allowed voters to think and act independently

constitutional Convention

The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.

Statute of Religious Freedom

penned by Jefferson in 1777, it was the original drafting of the later principles of separation of church and state


the voluntary freeing of enslaved persons

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