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PSYC303 Learning & Cognition

Cognitive Psychology course quiz & exam questions & answers
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Generally, if we can see an object's geons, we are able to identify the object. This is known as the
principles of componential recovery
The recognition-by-components approach proposes that there are a number of basic features such as
rectangular solids and cubes
Some perceptions result from assumptions we make about the environment that we are not even aware of. This theory of unconscious inference was developed by
Helmholtz
A heuristic is a
"rule of thumb" that provides a best-guess solution to a problem
The study of the behavior of humans with brain damage is called
neuropsychology
When Sam listens to his girlfriend Susan in the restaurant and ignores other people's conversations, he is engaged in the process of _______ attention
selective
Broadbent's "filter model" proposes that the filter identifies the attended message based on
physical characteristics
Which of the following would likely be an input message into the detector in Broadbent's model?
A message with a German accent
Colby and coworkers' study showed that a monkey's parietal cortex responded best to the appearance of a light when it was the focus of the monkey's
attention
According to Treisman's feature integration theory, the first stage of perception is called the _____ stage.
preattentive
According to your text, students often overlook functions of memory they take for granted such as
labeling familiar objects
Information remains in sensory memory for seconds or a fraction of a second
seconds or a fraction of a second
Compared to the whole-report technique, the partial-report procedure involves
a smaller response set
Brief sensory memory for sound is known as
echoic memory
STM's capacity is best estimated as seven (plus or minus two)
meaningful units
Loss of memory for things that have happened in the past is known as
retrograde amnesia
The dramatic case of patient H.M. clearly illustrates that _____is crucial for the formation of LTMs
the hippocampus
Which of the following is NOT an example of an implicit memory?
Semantic memory
Work with brain-injured patients reveals that _____memory does not depend on conscious memory.
implicit and procedural
According to your text, which of the following movies is LEAST accurate in its portrayal of a memory problem?
50 First Dates
Donders' main reason for doing his choice reaction time experiment was to study
decision making
A common feature of both a reaction time experiment and an operant conditioning experiment is
the measurement of behavior
Who developed the concept of the cognitive map?
Tolman
Who proposed that children's language development was caused by imitation and reinforcement?
B. F. Skinner
The field that studies how to make machines behave in ways that are intelligent if a human were so behaving is known as
artificial intelligence
The neuron doctrine is
in disagreement with nerve net theory
Action potentials occur in the
axon
Which part of the brain is important for touch?
Parietal lobe
The layer of neurons that lines the back of the eye is called the
retina
Most cognitive psychologists_________the notion of a grandmother cell.
reject
Which of the following is not a geon?
Circle
The process by which small objects become perceptually grouped to form larger objects is
perceptual organization
Palmer's experiment, in which he asked people to identify objects in a kitchen, showed how ______ can affect perception.
context
The landmark discrimination problem is more difficult to do if you have damage to your______ lobe.
parietal
The perception pathway corresponds to the _________pathway, while the action pathway corresponds to the _______pathway.
what; where
Selection of the attended message in the Broadbent model occurs based on the
physical characteristics of the message
A high threshold in Treisman's model of attention implies that
a strong signal to cause activation
The ability to pay attention to, or carry out, two or more different tasks simultaneously is known as
divided attention
The Stroop effect demonstrates
how automatic processing can interfere with intended processing
Controlled processing involves
close attention
The use of an eye tracker can help reveal the shifting of one's _______ attention.
overt
When we reach a scene, initial fixations are most likely to occur on _____areas.
high-saliency
A property of control processes in the modal model of memory is that they
may differ from one task to another
Which of the following represents the most effective chunking of the digit sequence 14929111776?
1492 911 1776
If you remember something in terms of its meaning, the type of encoding you are using is
semantic
One function of ________ is controlling the suppression of irrelevant information.
the central executive
Types of declarative memory are _____ and ______ memory.
episodic; semantic
The multiple choice question is an example of a ______test.
recognition
Acquiring information and transforming it into memory is
encoding
The principle that we learn information together with its context is known as
encoding specificity
Autobiographical memory research shows that a person's brain is more extensively activated when viewing photos
they took themselves
Schrauf and Rubin's "two group of immigrants" study found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occurring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to 15 years later for those who emigrated later. The results support the:
cognitive hypothesis
Flashbulb memory is best represented by which of the following statements?
it is memory for circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time.
Your friend has been sick for several days, so you go over to her home to make some chicken soup. Searching for a spoon, you first reach in a top drawer beside the dishwasher. Then, you turn to the big cupboard beside the stove to search for a pan. In your search, you have relied on a kitchen
schema
In the "War of the Ghosts" experiment participants' reproductions contained inaccuracies based on
cultural expectations
The misinformation effect occurs when a person's memory for an event is modified by misleading information presented
after the event
The mental representations of knowledge are:
concepts
The definitional approach to categorization
doesn't work well for most natural objects like birds, trees, and plants
Collins and Quillian explained the results of priming experiments by introducing the concept of _______ into their network model
spreading activation
If I tell you to think of a fish and you think of its characteristics, such as gills, fins, no air, etc.,you are thinking of its ______ attributes.
defining
Mental imagery involves
experiencing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input
Behaviorists branded the study of imagery as being unproductive because
visual images are invisible to everyone except the person experiencing them
"Early" researchers of imagery (beginning with Aristotle until just prior to the dominance of behaviorism) proposed all of the following EXCEPT
imagery requires a special mechanism
Mental-scanning experiments found
a positive linear relationship between scanning time and distance on the image
Imagery neurons respond to
visual images as well as objects in a specific category
Language consists of smaller components, like words that can be combined to form larger ones, like phrases, to create sentences, which themselves can be components of a larger story. This property is known as
hierarchical structure
B F. Skinner, the modern champion of behaviorism, proposed that language is learned through
reinforcement
Ron is an avid reader. He has a large vocabulary because every time he comes across a word he doesn't know, he looks it up in the dictionary. Ron encounters "wanderlust" in a novel, reaches for the dictionary, and finds out this word means "desire to travel," The process of looking up unfamiliar words increases Ron's
lexicon
Which of the following is the best example of a garden path sentence?
Before the police stopped the Toyota disappeared into the night
Boxing champion George Foreman recently described his family vacations with the statement, "At our ranch in Marshall, Texas, there are lots of ponds and I take the kids out and we fish. And then of course, we grill them." That a reader understands "them" appropriately (George grills fish and not kids) is a result of a(n)____ inference
anaphoric