6: DNA & Biotechnology
Terms in this set (68)
Removing the terminal phosphate from ATP does what?
DNA is always read from the
5' to 3' End
Which end of the DNA strand will have a free OH?
the 3' End
Which end of the DNA strand will have a phosphate group free?
the 5' End
DNA is generally
RNA is generally
nitrogenous bases made of two rings (adenine and guanine)
Bases with a single-ring structure.
Nucleic acids are imbued with exceptional
The two stands of DNA are anti-
The sugar-phosphate backbone is on the ______ of the DNA helix
The nitrogen bases of the DNA helix are on the ______
What is always paired with Adenine? (DNA)
What is always paired with Adenine? (RNA)
What is always paired with Guanine (DNA/RNA)
What provides stability to the DNA structure?
Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic effect
Chargaff's rules state that the number of Adenine bases must equal...
the number of Thymine bases
The double helix of most DNA is right-handed, also called
The double helix of left-handed DNA is called
Major & Minor grooves in the B-DNA helix provide
binding sites for regulatory proteins
DNA denaturing separates the double helix into two
None of the covalent bonds between nucleotides in the backbone of DNA
break during denaturing
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compacted during interphase and is generally not transcribed.
The less condensed form of eukaryotic chromatin that is available for transcription.
The protective ends of eukaryotic chromosomes
Region of DNA found in the center of chromosomes. They are referred to as sites of constriction because they form indentations. It is composed of heterochromatin with high G-C content. They hold the sister chromatids together during cell division until microtubules separate the chromatids during anaphase.
DNA Polymerase reads in which direction?
3' to 5'
DNA polymerase synthesizes in what direction?
5' to 3'
DNA polymerase α
Eukaryotic DNA polymerase that initiates replication.
DNA polymerase δ
Eukaryotic polymerase used to synthesize new DNA after primer removal
DNA polymerase γ
Replicates mitochondrial DNA
DNA polymerase β
Eukaryotic DNA polymerase that performs base excision repair
DNA polymerase epsilon
Synthesizes the leading strands in eukaryotes, consumes dATP, dTTP, dGTP, and dCTP, performs proofreading
The sliding clamp of the Pol III holoenzyme and increases the processivity of DNA polymerases.
DNA polymerase cannot synthesize the
5' end of the DNA strand
Mutated genes that cause cancer
normal cellular genes that are important regulators of normal cellular processes, they promote growth. alterations in the expression of these cells result in oncogenes
Tumor supressor genes
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain.
Nucleotide excision repair
A repair system that removes and then correctly replaces a damaged segment of DNA using the undamaged strand as a guide.
makes nicks in the phosphodiester backbone of the damaged strand on both sides of the thymine dimer and removes the defective oligonucleotide
A site in a nucleic acid chain that has lost the purine or pyrimidine base, but still has the sugar-phosphate backbone intact. (B1)
Recognizes apurinic/apyrimidinic site (abasic site) and cleaves behind it to base excise repair
non-coding regions such as introns
cDNA libraries are constructed by
reverse-transcribing processed mRNA
A technique that enables specific nucleotide sequences to be detected in a sample of DNA.
removes RNA primers in eukaryotes
Relieve the tension that is created in front of the replication fork by DNA helices as DNA is unwound.
DNA polymerase proofreading occurs in which phase of the cell cycle?
DNA Mismatch Repair occurs in which phase of the cell cycle
DNA Nucleotide Excision Repair occurs in which phase of the cell cycle?
DNA Base Excision Repair occurs in which phase of the cell cycle?
Cell Cycle Phases
During the G1 Cell Phase Cycle, what occurs?
Cellular Contents, excluding the chromosomes, are duplicated
During the S (synthesis) Cell Phase Cycle, what occurs?
Each of the 46 chromosomes is duplicated by the cell
During the G2 Cell Phase Cycle, what occurs?
The cell "double checks" the duplicated chromosomes for error, making any needed repair
Southern blotting separates DNA segments based on what?
What is the purpose of dideoxyribonucleotides?
to stop DNA growth, end of a sequence, can't form more DNA/build off more
the number of copies of a given DNA sequence and can be used for a sample containing very few copies of the DNA sequence
A structure composed of two coils of DNA wrapped around an octet of histone proteins. The nucleosome is the primary form of packaging of eukaryotic DNA.
Common DNA mutation is transition from
cytosine to uracil in the presence of heat
Enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template