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AP Euro 2
Terms in this set (59)
Prince Henry the Navigator
-patron of exploration
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit
The Tudor Dynasty was a European royal house of Welsh origin that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms from 1485 until 1603.
The Tudor family rose to power in the wake of the Wars of the Roses.
Passed act of supremacy
daughter of Henry VIII
45 year reign
daughter of henry VIII
wife of Philip II (king of spain)
English Common Law
this law was ordered by Henry II which made changes to the english judicial system. It based the law on precedent rather than a code and introduced trial by jury.
French ruling family prior to Henry IV
Ferdinand and Isabella
king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary
Holy Roman Empire
an empire established in Europe in the 10th century A.D., originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy.
(1527-1598) King of Spain from 1556 to 1598. Absolute monarch who helped lead the Counter Reformation by persecuting Protestants in his holdings. Also sent the Spanish Armada against England.
The seven provinces united in 1579 that formed the basis of the republic of the Netherlands; they appealed to England for aid to fight Spain.
Thirty Years War
Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire ends with peace of Westphalia (1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily wars between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Albrecht von Wallenstein
Leader of Ferdinand II's army in the 30 years war
Swedish king who invaded the HRE in the thirty years war but is stopped by Ferdinand II and Wallenstein
Peace of West Phalia
Ended the Thirty Years' War. Let each German state pick their religion, gave the Franco-German border to France, gave some land to Sweden, Brandenberg and Bavaria. Reduced power of Holy Roman Emperor.
James I and the house of Stuart
Anglican line in england
Petition of right
parliaments statement (signed by king Charles I) limiting the kings powers
king went back on his word and broke up parliament for 11 years
English Civil War
civil war in England between the parliamentarians (round heads), which consisted of the parliament, puritans, merchants, and the gentry and the Royalists (Cavaliers), which included the nobles, the king, and anglicans under Charles I
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
Henry IV (France)
-Bourbon king of France
-Reduced power of the nobility and increased his role in the economy
-Treaty of Nantes
French king who succeeded Henry IV when he was nine years old; his reign was dominated by the influence by his mother and regent Marie de Medici, Cardinal Richelieu, and wealthy nobles.
man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government.
dynasty that favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.
the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus (2nd century AD)
geocentric vs. heliocentric
Heliocentric means "sun-centered", or the current way astronomers look at our solar system. the sun at the center and all the the other planets encircling it.
Geocentric means "earth-centered", or the astrological or pre-Copernicus view of our solar system. the Earth at the center and the Sun, Moon, and planets encircling it.
-German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
-Best known astronomer
-notable work in physics
-proved heliocentric theory
-improved the telescope
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
A book published by Newton in 1687, in which most of its research and thinking had taken place 15 years earlier. It was the basis of much scientific work for centuries.
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poses and compression of space.
Art that applies naturalistic, REALIST styles and contrast with light and dark. Religious AND secular themes. Involved with ABSOLUTISM.
the principles and styles admired in the classics of Greek and Roman literature, such as objectivity, sensibility, restraint, and formality
Rembrandt van Rijn
divine right of kings
the belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God
-was his own chief minister
-revoked Edict of Nantes
-built palace of versailles
the head of Habsburg elected in 1657 and in return keeping two promises: give no help to his cousins, the rulers of Spain, and the empire would be a state of princes, in which each ruler would be free from imperial interference
the house that ruled Prussia, they gradually won control over the Brandenburg through marriages, giving them control of German principalities in central and western Germany.
philosophes inspired and supported reforms of Enlightened despots-believed absolute rulers should promote good of people-religious toleration, streamlined legal codes, increased access to education, reduction or elimination of torture and death penalty
Frederick II (the great)
-developed Industry/Economic growth
war of Spanish succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
war of Austrian succession
This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state
-limited noble's power
Peter I "The Great"
-built a new capital (St. Petersburg)
-reformed government bureaucracy
-gained vast territory
-encouraged commerce (with Europe)
basic principle that government and those who govern must obey the law; the rule of law
partition of poland
This was the splitting up of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria
believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority
-social contract theory
-"tabula rasa"--blank slate (society corrupts)
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions